Obstructive sleep apnea is a chronic disease characterized by the appearance of apnea or hypopnea episodes during sleep. This condition is associated with several risk factors. Among them, the most important is obesity and it is the only potentially curable. The treatment is polimodal and it involves several therapeutic directions. The purpose of this paper is to establish the role of obesity in the etiology of sleep apnea, as well as the role of the weight loss in its management, both through intensive lifestyle interventions and surgical therapy.
A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurs when there appears a fistula between the dura and the skull base and it is usually characterized by discharge of cerebrospinal fluid from the nose. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks may have many etiologies, the most common being trauma. The most common site of dural lesion is the cribriform plate of the ethmoid. Diagnosis can be achieved by a multitude of techniques, high-resolution computed tomography being the modality of choice and it may be completed with magnetic resonance imaging or cisternography. Treatment may be either conservative, either surgical, related to the cause, the site and the duration of CSF leak. Conservative treatment usually includes strict bed rest, elevated bed head and no straining, nose blowing or stretching, with resolution of the majority of traumatic CSF leaks in seven days. Surgical treatment consists of a variety of approaches (intracranial/extracranial, open/endoscopic). The future trend is represented by minimally invasive endoscopic approaches, with a success rate of almost 90%; however, open transcranial or extracranial interventions still have indications in the surgical management. CSF leaks must be correctly diagnosed and treated, because the risk of intracranial complications increases 10-fold when the leakage persists.
The nasal swell body (NSB) is considered to be an enlarged region of the nasal septum, which is located superiorly to the inferior nasal turbinate and anteriorly to the middle nasal turbinate, with a potential effect upon the airflow nasal valve. The histological studies of the NSB demonstrated that it is a glandular formation, not a venous structure, and it is formed by septal cartilage and bone, as well as a thick mucosa. Recent studies emphasized the functional role of the nasal swell body and it is thought to interfere with the nasal airflow and air humidification, due to its proximity to the internal nasal valve and its histological characteristics (venous sinusoids and seromucinous glands). The nasal swell body is strongly related to the presence of rhinosinusal chronic inflammations (allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis) and the septal deviation. In case of the presence of the nasal swell body, surgical treatment is not commonly done, due to the absence of a consensus between the ENT practitioners. Most of them consider surgery as being too aggressive because of the presence of seromucinous glands, with slight impact upon the nasal obstruction. Most probably, the lack of consensus is determined by inconsistent anatomical and histological study results.
Fungal rhinosinusitis is an important pathological entity, a highly controversial topic in the medical world today, by the various research directions it offers. In order to be able to predict a patient’s prognosis and his response to treatment, first we must have a classification of fungal rhinosinusitis. The authors considered it is important to make a distinction between invasive and noninvasive forms of fungal rhinosinusitis. The most important step in the management of fungal rhinosinusitis is to have a correct diagnosis, based on strong criteria, which will lead to a better prognosis of this disease. Because of its invasiveness potential, especially in patients at risk, it is essential to have a correct and fast diagnosis in case of fungal rhinosinusitis, in order to begin the treatment as fast as possible, for a favourable prognosis. The only way to establish diagnosis in a reliable way is to make a detailed clinical examination and to take biopsy samples.
Salivary gland cancers are represented by a heterogeneous histologic group of tumors, with low incidence, which may appear both in major and minor salivary glands. This article presents a review of the difficulties which may be encountered in this pathology during the treatment. The diagnosis of salivary gland cancers is often delayed, due to the histopathologic and immunohistochemistry results given in different period of times. There can be several difficulties in following the oncologic pre-treatment protocols, in terms of imaging technique, as MRI, useful for disease staging.
The treatment of salivary gland cancers is complex, due to the local anatomy and their aggressive potential. Because of their decreased incidence, there are few data that investigate the treatment in the case of these diseases. The current therapy available for the patients with salivary gland cancers is represented by complete surgical resection. Several treatment difficulties in cancers of the salivary glands may come from the surgical limitations and the insufficient data for adjuvant and palliative treatment. Due to the limitations of the local health system, there is a heterogeneous distribution of the oncologic centers, lack of equipment, prolonged time to follow general protocols, despite the aspect of case-individualized therapy according to the guidelines. We must not forget the tumor behaviour and individual reactivity of different patients to the same treatment protocol.
BACKGROUND. Unfortunately, tuberculosis is still being diagnosed among patients, independent of their age, gender, provenance or social category. The etiologic agent of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is known to have a period of latency between the initial infection and the clinical manifestation. The most common localization is pulmonary, but it can affect, secondarily, other organs, especially in the ENT regions, mimicking other systemic diseases.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We are presenting a case of a 51-year-old female patient, who was referred to our ENT Clinic with the suspicion of Behcet’s disease with rhinosinusal manifestations. She had a pulmonary assessment in another hospital, as she was known with left lung bronchiectasis, but the sputum samples were negative. The clinical otorhinolaryngologic examination together with the rheumato-logical assessment and the result of the nasal mucosa biopsy were suggestive for Behcet’s disease and the patient received 6 weeks of Prednisolone. The specific immunologic tests (cANCA, pANCA, HLA B51) were negative. The patient returned to our clinic after 2 months, accusing symptomatology reacutization with right otorrhea and bilateral hearing loss aggravation. Nasal and rhinopharyngeal mucosa biopsies were repeated and the anatomopathological result was specific for tuberculosis.
RESULTS. She was referred to the Pneumology Service where she received the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis with rhinosinusal and otic manifestations. Currently, the patient is under tuberculostatic treatment.
CONCLUSION. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis symptoms might be confused with other systemic diseases with rhinosinusal manifestations. Thorough examination and multidisciplinary approach are mandatory in order to establish a correct diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment.
BACKGROUND. Innate immunity represents the first way of protection against different pathogenic agents. Recently, it has been a permanent interest regarding an innate immune molecule, that is known as palate, lung, nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC). PLUNC is a specific result found in the airways, of approximately 25 kDa, whose encoding is realized by adjacent genes located within a region of 300 kb in chromosome 20; these proteins must be detected predominantly in the superior respiratory tract.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a prospective clinical study on 34 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 10 controls, in order to investigate the expression of this protein in nasal tissue of patients affected by chronic rhinosinusitis. We tested the correlation between the existence of this disease and PLUNC proteins positivity.
RESULTS. 100% of controls have a+++ rated PLUNC proteins positivity, while cases have a lower percentage of positivity. There were no differences statistically significant between patients with CRSwNP and those with CRSsNP.
CONCLUSION. As a response to different irritating agents (bacteria, viruses, chemical factors), nasal mucosa will react by producing PLUNC proteins. PLUNC proteins have a defensive role in the upper airways mucosa.
BACKGORUND. Sinus floor elevation, also known as sinus lift, is the surgical procedure meant to elevate the maxillary floor in order to increase the height of the alveolar bone. This will allow the oral surgeon specialist to insert the desired implants, the ground of dental reconstruction. As the procedure involves the maxillary sinus and its Schneiderian membrane the main concern is to have a healthy maxillary sinus prior to implantation and to the maxillary augmentation.
OBJECTIVE. The aim of our study was to identify the patients with abnormal CT scan and refer them to an ENT evaluation, in order to identify and treat any sinusal pathology that can lead to a poor outcome of the sinus-lift intervention.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Our prospective study included 15 patients selected from a group of 79 adults, candidates for dental implantation with sinus augmentation. These patients had abnormal sinus CT scan in terms of mucosal hypertrophy, cysts or fungal material. Transnasal diameatic sinusoscopy was performed for all the patients, assessing the aspect of the sinus cavity and the mucosa. The following abnormal aspects were found in our group: 5 patients with cysts, 2 patients with fungus ball and 4 with mucosal hypertrophy. 4 patients had normal maxillary mucosa despite the CT scan appearance.
RESULTS. All the patients with abnormal aspects at sinusoscopy (11 patients) were operated on before sinus lift procedure - antrostomy, cyst removal, fungus ball removal. 4 patients showed normal aspect of the sinus mucosa despite the CT scan donations, meaning a 26.66% error rate in appreciating the real changes of the maxillary mucosa on the CT scan.
CONCLUSION. Endoscopic assessment of the maxillary sinus is mandatory in patients with changes of the CT scan. This allows a proper examination of the sinus mucosa and can predict the outcomes of the sinus lift procedures. It is mandatory to cure the inflammation or infection of the maxillary sinus prior to implant procedure in order to be able to increase the success rate, as it can lead to failures of the implant procedure.