In the present experiment, the significance of cultivar (convention-al and coloured) and of the application of the soil fertility enhancer UGmax on health-promoting properties of carrot roots subjected to the freezing process of carrot cubes after water blanching was investigated. The selection of cultivar turned out to be highly signif-icant with respect to the development of health-promoting properties of carrot roots. The highest antioxidant properties were found in the purple cultivar ‘Deep Purple’. Its mean antioxidant capacity accounted for 5.31 mmol Fe+2 · kg–1 f.m. Essential for health-promoting properties were the contents of anthocyanins (R2 = 0.83), chlorogenic acid (R2 = 0.81) and total polyphenolics (R2 = 0.71). The application of the biological agent UGmax improved the qual-ity of carrot significantly, increasing the content of total carotenoids and reducing the losses of ascorbic acid during processing. The freezing process negatively influenced the antioxidative properties of carrot irrespective of cultivar and applied agro-technique (use of UGmax), especially in the case of water-soluble antioxidants such as anthocyanins and ascorbic acid.
The order to monitor the chemical pollution of food, the dynamic development of ecology and specialisation in potato production as well as its large consumption caused the investigations about the influence of storage time and genetic conditions of potato on con-tents of nitrates (V) and (III) in tubers for different use purposes during 2009–2011.
In the present study, eight cultivars of potatoes with different use purposes and duration of vegetation time obtained from producer Norika Poland INC were used: ‘Albatros’, ‘Gala’, ‘Karatop’, ‘Kar-lena’, ‘Kiebitz’, ‘Lambada’, ‘Molli’ and ‘Pirol’.
The tubers of cultivars used for processing such as starch pro-duction (‘Albatros’) as well as chips and crisps (‘Karlena’) were characterised by the highest content of nitrates (V) and (III). After 6 months of storage, a significant decrease of nitrates (V) and (III) contents was observed, which from the point of view of the con-sumer should be considered as the beneficial effect. Regardless of cultivar, the depletion of nitrates (V) was in the mean of 4.7% and of nitrates (III) was about 4.4%. Regardless of the use purposes, the intake of 300 g of investigated potato tubers after harvest as well as after storage time does not exceed the recommended daily allowance for nitrates (V) and (III), where after the storage time this amount is even declining.
During 2007-2009, studies were undertaken to determine the effect of genetic factors, magnesium fertilisation and storage on the content of nitrates (V) and (III) in carrot roots. After harvest as well as after storage, the cultivar ‘Perfekcja’ was characterised by the lowest content of NO3− and NO2−, while the greatest amounts were found in cultivar ‘Flacoro’. Magnesium was applied in doses of 0, 45 and 90 kg MgO ha-1 - in the form of 3% spraying during the vegetation season. The research items were cultivars: ‘Berjo’, Flacoro’, ‘Karotan’, ‘Koral’ and ‘Perfekcja’.
After harvest as well as after storage, the cultivar ‘Perfekcja’ was characterised by the lowest content of NO3− and NO2−, while the greatest amounts were found in cultivar ‘Flacoro’. In this research, each of the applied dose of magnesium fertilisation resulted in a significant increase in the content of nitrates (V) and (III) in carrot roots, but none of the evaluated cultivars did not exceed the allowed amounts. After storage, the content of nitrates (V) decreased for the cultivars ‘Berjo’, ‘Flacoro’ and ‘Karotan’ by 2%, for ‘Koral’ and ‘Perfekcja’ by 2.5%, whereas of nitrates (III) for the cultivar ‘Berjo’ by 1%, Karotan’ and ‘Perfekcja’ by 3% and for ‘Flacoro’ and ‘Koral’ by 5%.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of application of small amounts of nitrogen to the soil together with foliar application of micronutrients on the content of copper, manganese and zinc in the grain of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.). The study was based on a two-factor field experiment conducted in 2009–2011 on very good rye complex soil. Nitrogen was applied in the form of ammonium nitrate (34% N), and manganese and copper were applied to the leaves in the form of the fertilisers Adob Mn (1.5 l∙ha−1) and Adob Cu (1.0 l∙ha−1), respectively. The results indicated that the nitrogen fertilisation, the foliar application of micronutrients and the interaction of these factors significantly determined the contents of copper, manganese and zinc in the grain. The highest content of Cu and Mn in the material was obtained following the application of 50 kg N·ha−1, and an increase in nitrogen application (to 50 kg·ha−1) caused a decrease in the content of zinc in the grain. Foliar application of Cu, Mn and both elements together resulted in significant changes in the concentrations of Cu, Mn and Zn in the plant material as compared to treatment without the application of micronutrients. The mineral fertilisers at the rates applied had a beneficial effect on the chemical composition of the grain, and thus on its quality, and this was achieved with substantially lower consumption of agrochemicals than that in the case of agrotechnical procedures for traditional cereals. It can, therefore, be concluded that this practice is environment friendly and can significantly reduce the negative impact of agricultural activity.
An effective way to reduce nitric oxide emissions may be to reduce the level of nitrogen fertilization. Specialized formulations such as biostimulators are a good alternative to conventional mineral fertilization. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the application of biostimulation agents (Asahi SL, Kelpak SL, Tytanit) applied against the limited dose of nitrogen (75 kgN·ha−1) on winter wheat ‘Muszelka’, their effect was measured on the parameters: grain yield, protein content, amount of chlorophyll and root mass. No statistically significant changes in yields were observed, but after application of the Asahi SL and Kelpak SL, considerably higher values were found as compared to the controls. It should be emphasised that the applied formulations significantly affected the root mass and chlorophyll content of the leaves. Especially in the case of roots of the plants where the biostimulator Asahi was used in the phase BBCH 37, Kelpak in BBCH 23 and fertilizer Tytanit in BBCH 37. And in the case of chlorophyll objects, where Tytanit was applied in BBCH 37 and 69. In the study, significant correlation was found only between the chlorophyll content and the root mass (r = 0.54).
The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of environmental conditions (biofortification with Mg) and technological processes (freezing, preserving in jars and drying) on the content of nitrates (III) in carrot. Besides this, the amount of human intake of nitrates (III) found in the carrot products analysed was assayed. The effect on environment resulting from the changes in carrot growing technology was not so unambiguous as for nitrates (V) since most NO2¯ was contained in, for example, processed foods from non-biofortified Mg material. The consumption of products was not hazardous to the consumer since it did not exceed Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) NO2¯. Most nitrates (III) are consumed with dried carrot and least - with carrot preserved in jars. For this reason, one should run a thorough monitoring of the contents of nitrates (III), toxic to humans since new products based on dried carrot material, such as crisps, are launched in the consumer market.
In Poland, in recent years, there has been a great interest in growing spelt wheat. This is dictated not only by an increasing demand for food with higher healthy properties and unique taste, but also by a possibility of attracting farmers’ attention to this cereal as an alternative crop, with smaller requirements regarding the use of fertilization, as compared with common wheat. The aim of this study was to carry out the assessment of value of some technological characters of grain and flour of spelt wheat depending on different fertilizations with nitrogen (I factor, n=3, 25 and 50 kg N∙ha−1 + control treatment) and foliar application of microelements (II factor, n=4, Mn, Cu, combined fertilization with Mn and Cu + control treatment). Based on the performed study, it was found that fertilization with nitrogen, microelements and their interaction had, on average for years, a significant effect on the values of technological characters. Introduction of 25 kg N·ha−1 caused an increase in the value of falling number, whereas total protein content, wet gluten content and sedimentation value increased as a result of increasing nitrogen rates up to a level of 50 kg·ha−1. Of the variants of fertilization with microelements, the highest values of the analysed baking indices were found in the effects of combined foliar application of copper and manganese.
Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.
Rapid increase in the European beaver population in Poland in 21st century determines and accelerates the process of renaturalization of the areas that have undergone partial degradation as a result of anthropopressure. A singular example is the river valleys populated by beavers that have been adapted to people’s needs in the last centuries, which has inevitably exerted an undesirable effect.
The factors that affect the value of parsley for consumption include its taste, flavour and dietary utility (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and iron, raw fibre, proteins) as well as the content of hazardous substances, especially nitrogen compounds. A study was carried out in 2013–2015 to determine the effect of the cultivation technology and storage on the safety of parsley intended for processing. The study material was taken from an experiment where the following fertilisers were applied to the ground: nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N∙ha−1) and magnesium (0; 30 kg Mg∙ha−1). Parsley roots were stored for six months in a storage room at +1°C and RH 95%. The content of nitrates (V) and (III) was determined by the ion selective method immediately after the harvest and after storage in parsley roots.
The highest levels of nitrates (V) and (III) were found in parsley roots in the cultivation option where nitrogen for fertilisation was applied at the greatest amount, i.e. 120 kg N ha−1 and magnesium at 30 kg Mg∙ha−1. Regardless of the measures applied during the vegetation period, prolonged storage of parsley resulted in a decreased content of nitrates (V) and (III) in its roots. The limit for nitrogen content and the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrates (1.0%) and nitrites (4.5%) were not exceeded in the cultivar under study.
The aim of the research was to define changes in the content of NO3¯ determined by the environment and processing in products from five cultivars of carrot, orange in colour. Besides this, in the research, the human intake of toxic compounds found in processed foods was also assayed. All the processed foods were produced at laboratory scale compliant with the applicable guidelines and norms. The content of nitrates in processed foods depended significantly on the genetic conditions of material and on the processing method. Of all the cultivars under study, ‘Karotan’ was least applicable to processing since, irrespective of the processing method, the lowest decrease in nitrates was reported for that cultivar. The consumption of processed foods from the cultivars of carrot studied is not hazardous to consumer health, since the value of the ADI in adult, Acceptable Daily Intake, is not exceeded.