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  • Author: Elżbieta Wojtowicz x
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Open access

Krzysztof Przygoński and Elżbieta Wojtowicz

Summary

Introduction: Powder extracts from white mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) are desirable due to their simplicity of use. Powders intended for use in food and dietary supplements can be obtained by various methods, including water extraction and spray drying.

Objective: The aim of the work was to optimize the aqueous process of extraction of white mulberry leaves and characterization of bioactive properties of the obtained extract powder.

Methods: The DNJ and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol) contents and were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH assays.

Results: The mulberry leaf extraction process has been optimized. The obtained powdered mulberry leaf extract proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. Characteristic phenolic compounds detected in mulberry leaves and their powder extract were quercetin and kaempferol. The sum of polyphenols was 10.9 mg GAE/g dry matter in the raw material, whereas in the powder extract 42.6 mg GAE/g dry matter. In addition, it was found that the obtained powdered extract is characterized by a five-fold higher, in comparison to the raw material, the content of antioxidant activity measured by ABTS and DPPH tests. The content of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in the powder extract was nearly four times higher than in dry mulberry leaves.

Conclusion: The optimized process of water extraction of white mulberry leaves allows to keep valuable bioactive components and to obtain their high concentration.

Open access

Katarzyna Wójtowicz-Chomicz, Anna Czeczuk, Elżbieta Huk-Wieliczuk and Andrzej Borzęcki

Abstract

Introduction. Alcohol is found to contribute to everyday life of young people. Frequent heavy drinking, violent behavior under influence of alcohol are typical for youths. Unreasonable over-consumption of alcohol might have direct impact on their health in adulthood, as initially controlled amount of alcohol drinking can gradually lead to abuse and further, to alcohol addiction.

Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and to notify knowledge of the harmful effects of alcohol on human body.

Material and methods. The study was conducted among 276 fifth-year students (including 206 men and 70 women). Students filled out an anonymous questionnaire containing AUDIT test.

Results. Risky model of alcohol consumption was observed among 75.72% of students whereas alcohol-addicted group accounted for 1.81%. The remaining group of students (22.47%) was reported as harmful alcohol consumption model. Beer was the most often consumed alcohol.

Conclusions. Abstinence from drinking alcohol is a rarely observed phenomenon among students of the Academy of Physical Education. Future PE teachers should be urgently motivated to educate and to encourage youths about healthy life style.

Open access

Katarzyna Wójtowicz-Chomicz, Anna Czeczuk, Elżbieta Huk-Wieliczuk and Andrzej Borzęcki

Abstract

Introduction. Poland is among the top ten countries of the European Union displaying the highest intensity of smoking.

Aim. To evaluate the frequency and intensity of smoking, the strength of nicotine addiction and the motivation to discontinue smoking, among students of the Academy of Physical Education.

Material and methods. First, a survey involving an anonymous questionnaire (which included both the Fageström and Schneider tests), was conducted within a population of 276 students. Next, this was analyzed statistically using the Statystica 7.1 program.

Results. The initial results of this research showed that 29, 71% of all respondents smoke cigarettes. Moreover, the applied Fageström test revealed that the test population was either: slightly addicted (44, 72% of all respondents), moderately addicted (34, 84% of all respondents), or heavily addicted (17.44%).

Conclusions. The prevalence of smoking among students of the Academy of Physical Education remains alarming. Furthermore, the negative health behaviors contribute to an adverse overview of the health of the questioned students.

Open access

Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz and Jacek Białek

Abstract

The consumer price index (CPI) is acommon measure of inflation. Similarly to the harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP), it is determined using the Laspeyres index, thus data on the consumption of the basket of goods do not have to be current. The Laspeyres index, using weights only from the base period, may not reflect changes in consumer preferences that occurred in the studied year. This is the reason for the formation of the so-called substitution bias in the measurement of inflation. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of the level of innovativeness of a given country’s economy on the occurrence of the substitution effect. The empirical part of the article is based on basic innovation indices, i.e. the SII, IOI, and GII. The assessment of the relationship between the level of innovativeness and the scale of the substitution effect was carried out based on the methods of multidimensional statistical analysis (including cluster analysis, the PROFIT method).

Open access

Katarzyna Wójtowicz-Chomicz, Adam Stadnik, Elżbieta Huk-Wieliczuk, Anna Czeczuk and Andrzej Borzęcki

Abstract

The toxic effect of various doses of aflatoxin B1 on renal function was studied. Experiments were conducted on randomly chosen Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups. Group I received 8% alcohol intragastrically. The other groups received aflatoxin B1 in various doses. The effect of the aflatoxin on renal cells was analysed by means of determination of oxidoreductive balance and development of free radicals. The activity of antioxidative enzymes in renal tissue has decreased with an increase in the dose of aflatoxin B1. Disturbance of oxidation balance in the kidneys confirm a toxic effect of aflatoxin B1 on these organs

Open access

Maria M. Grzelak, Iwona Laskowska and Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz

Abstract

In contemporary research and economic discussions, a great deal of attention is paid to issues concerning the relationship between competitiveness and research and development (R&D) activity. The measurement and assessment of the impact of R&D activity are extremely difficult but at the same time very important, in particular for authorities determining the level of expenditure on R&D and the method of spending public funds as well as for enterprises assessing the expected profits derived from R&D. The main aim of the article is an attempt to quantify the impact of R&D expenditure on three selected characteristics defining the competitiveness of manufacturing enterprises (gross value added, sold production and labour productivity). The analysis was carried out using panel models. The study makes use of statistical data published by the Central Statistical Office for individual divisions of manufacturing (Section C of the Polish Classification of Activities - PKD) in the years 2009-2016. The conducted analyses indicate that R&D expenditure constitutes a significant determinant of the competitiveness of the analysed divisions of manufacturing.

Open access

Elżbieta Wojtowicz, Aldona Krupska and Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak

Summary

Introduction: Novel raw materials are being constantly searched for chicory coffee, which thanks to their specific composition can influence human health, thus promoting properties and of course the attractive aroma. Prior to their addition herbs – sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.), rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia L.), lovage roots (Levisticum officinale Koch) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale coll.) – are roasted, which may change their antioxidant properties and generate free radicals with pro-oxidative properties.

Objective: The characteristic of antioxidant activity of roasted herbal raw materials (sea buckthorn fruits, rowanberry, lovage roots and dandelion roots) for the production of chicory coffee and to determine the level of free radicals formed under the influence of roasting.

Methods: Total phenolic contents were determined before and after the roasting process using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH assays. Free radicals were examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

Results: The roasted materials were good sources of bioactive compounds, estimated at the total phenolic levels from 23.9 to 38.8 mg GAE/g. The highest antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH at 109.6 and 71.0 mg Tx/g was determined in roasted sea buckthorn. Free radicals were present in both the raw and roasted herbal materials. Roasted materials were characterised by markedly higher free radical concentrations when compared with the corresponding samples. The lowest free radical concentrations were recorded for roasted sea buckthorn fruits (0.031 × 1015 spin/g).

Conclusion: Despite a high content of compounds with potent antioxidant activity, free radicals were present in novel roasted herbal materials. The formation of both antioxidant molecules and free radicals during the roasting process demonstrates that the two processes were not inversely related.

Open access

Tadeusz Peterlejtner, Tomasz Szewczyk, Elżbieta Buczyńska, Michał Zdrojewski, Piotr Firkowski, Radosław Kwiasowski and Łukasz Wojtowicz

Colonoscopic Polypectomy - Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety (Single Center Experience)

Colonoscopy is currently accepted as the golden standard in the detection of pre-malignant lesions, and reduction of the incidence of colorectal cancer in patients with adenomatous polyps.

The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of colonoscopy in case of patients with clinical symptoms suggesting the possibility of colorectal pathology, as well as evaluate the technical aspects and results of colonoscopic polypectomies, considering the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned procedures.

Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of the course and results of the polypectomies performed during 3638 colonoscopies was undertaken, considering patients with suspicion of colorectal pathology.

Results. Complete colonoscopy with cecal intubation was performed in 3310 (91%) cases. Colonoscopic polypectomies were performed during 806 (22.1%) examinations. Single polyps were detected in 459 (56.9%) cases, while multiple lesions in 347 (43.1%) cases. The total number of removed polyps amounted to 1184. There were 882 (74.6%) adenomas of which 225 (25.5%) were considered as an advanced pathology. Moreover, the pathologist detected 4 malignant polyps with features of adenocar-carcinoma. In case of 30 examinations, adenomas coexisted with colorectal cancer and were removed preoperatively. Post-polypectomy bleeding was observed after 15 (1.7%) polypectomies, although only two patients required surgery. Moreover, amongst the 343 rectal polyps, 19 (6%) non-pedunculated lesions were surgically removed (18 of them by means of the trans-anal approach).

Conclusions. The method proved effective and the polyps were detected and removed in more than 22% of the colonoscopic examinations. In two (0.28%) cases surgical intervention was required, in order to stop post- polypectomy bleeding from the polyp's peduncle. Some of the rectal polyps (6%) had to be surgically removed. Preoperative endoscopic "clearance" of large bowel polyps, facilitated the adjustment of the resection margin in subsequent colorectal cancer surgery.

Open access

Piotr Kusztal, Ilona Żeber-Dzikowska, Jarosław Chmielewski, Bożena Wójtowicz, Elżbieta Wszelaczyńska and Barbara Gworek

Abstract

Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

Rapid increase in the European beaver population in Poland in 21st century determines and accelerates the process of renaturalization of the areas that have undergone partial degradation as a result of anthropopressure. A singular example is the river valleys populated by beavers that have been adapted to people’s needs in the last centuries, which has inevitably exerted an undesirable effect.