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Elżbieta Szymańska

Abstract

The aim of the study is to compare the level of innovation of companies introducing innovations with consumer participation with that of other innovative providers of health tourism services. The following hypothesis was formulated: Companies benefiting from the participation of consumers in the process of innovation represent a higher level of innovativeness than other innovative providers of health tourism services.

The following methods were used: a comparative analysis, a questionnaire (CAWI and PAPI), a standardized interview, and the ranking method. 461 providers of health tourism services participated in the research.

The value and implications of the paper for the economic sciences contribute to the development of innovation theory. The hypothesis has been positively verified. The research shows a much higher level of innovation in companies cooperating with consumers (patients) than that of other respondents.

Open access

Daniela Szymańska, Elżbieta Grzelak-Kostulska and Beata Hołowiecka

Polish Towns and the Changes in Their Areas and Population Densities

This article presents the spatial and population density changes in Polish towns in the years 1960-2003. The assumed time frame allowed identifying area changes for a complete set of towns in different socio-economic conditions: the period of intense industrialisation, the economic crisis of the 1980s, the period of economic transition and finally in the years of a market economy. The investigation revealed that the trend shown by changes and the size of a town as measured by the number of its population are distinctly interrelated. It also demonstrated a much stronger dynamics of changes in the first subperiod, i.e. years 1960--1985, followed by a phase of relative stabilization (compared with the previous period) after the year 1980 (mainly of the spatial changes). Moreover, change intensity and change trends observed for the urban areas and population densities vary considerably in terms of space.

Open access

Joanna Okęcka-Szymańska, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak, Iwona Piątkowska and Marzena Malara

Effects of age, gender and physical activity on plasma lipid profile

Study aim: To assess the effects of gender, age and engagement in physical activities of elderly subjects on their plasma lipid profiles.

Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 11 each, participated in the study: young men (YM) and women (YW), aged 25 - 32 years, and sedentary, elderly men (EM) and women (EW), aged 58 - 66 years; additionally, a group of 7 women (AW), aged 60 - 65 years, who trained twice weekly (45-min sessions) for 8 months, was studied. The following concentrations of lipids in plasma were recorded: triacylglycerols (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and its fractions: HDLC and LDLC (computed), as well as the TC/HDLC ratio.

Results: Lipid profiles were, generally, less favourable in elderly than in younger subjects, high HDLC values noted in active, elderly women being an exception. In elderly subjects, men's profiles were closer to those of younger subjects than in elderly women and differed significantly (p<0.001) lower for TC and LDLC compared with EW group. Triacylglycerols were within normal limits in all groups except EW; LDLC values were mostly abnormally high, the percentages of subjects having normal values ranging from 0 (YM and EW) to 27% (YW).

Conclusions: The age-dependent worsening of lipid profiles increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases in sedentary elderly subjects. On the other hand, the beneficial effects of motor activities on lipid profile observed in elderly women evidence the indispensability recommending of physical exercises to the elderly.

Open access

Hanna Piotrzkowska, Jerzy Litniewski, Elżbieta Szymańska and Andrzej Nowicki

Abstract

The paper presents a classification of the healthy skin and the skin lesions (basal cell carcinoma) basing on a statistics of the envelope of ultrasonic echoes. The echoes envelopes distributions were modeled using Rayleigh and K-distribution. The distributions were compared with empirical data to find which of them better models the statistics of the echo-signal obtained from the human skin. The results indicated that the K-distribution provides a better fit.

Also, a characteristic parameter of the K-distribution, the effective number of scatterers (M), was investigated. The values of the M parameter, obtained for the skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma), were lower as compared to those obtained for the healthy skin. The results indicate that the statistical quantitative ultrasound parameters have a potential for extracting information useful for characterization of the skin condition.

Open access

Leszek Szalewski, Elżbieta Pietryka-Michałowska and Jolanta Szymańska

Abstract

Introduction. Properly designed and used denture is conducive to proper rehabilitation of edentulism.

Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and hygiene habits of patients using removable partial dentures (RPDs) including selected sociodemographic characteristics.

Material and methods. The survey comprised 321 individuals wearing RPDs, the residents of the Lublin Province. They were asked about the age, gender, place of residence, education, duration of denture usage, repairs made to RPDs, preparations used for cleansing and disinfection of RPDs, storage at night, causes of visiting the dentist, which was associated with the use of the RPD and the frequency of visits. The results were statistically analyzed.

Results. The average duration of removable partial dentures use was 7.8±5.7 years. The vast majority of respondents cleaned RPDs with a toothpaste – 90.9%, almost 2/3 of the surveyed population – did not disinfect their RPDs, 56.4% people not remove them for the night. Only 3.7% people visited the dentist on regular basis associated with the use of RPDs.

Conclusions. Among people wearing RPDs, too long duration of current RPD usage is confirmed. Moreover, the dentist does not check them regularly because patients do not visit dentists for check-up. RPDs are cleaned using improper preparations and usually are not disinfected. They are inadequately kept at nighttime, if ever removed from the mouth during sleep. Incorrect handling related to the use of removable partial dentures applies to persons regardless of their level of education and place of residence.

Open access

Leszek Szalewski, Elżbieta Pietryka-MichaŁowska and Jolanta Szymańska

Abstract

Introduction. Dental prosthetic replacements allow restoring the masticatory function, thus contributing to proper nutrition and correct speech, and also improving facial aesthetics.

Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the selected sociodemographic characteristics of people using removable dentures (patient-paid and funded by the National Health Fund).

Material and methods. A questionnaire survey involved 321 individuals, resident in the Lubelskie Voivodship, who used removable dental prostheses. Their selected sociodemographic characteristics were analysed: age, sex, education, place of residence and material status, as well as the form of payment for prosthetic replacements. The obtained results were analysed statistically.

Results. Almost 70% of the studied population wearing removable prostheses had their dentures funded by the National Health Fund. In each age group, women used National Health Fund funded prostheses twice more frequently than men. Prostheses funded by the National Health Fund were used significantly more frequently by patients aged 51-70 years, living in cities and with a higher education level, in comparison to the respondents from other age groups, with different place of residence and education level.

Conclusions. There is correlation between sex, age, place of residence and education level of patients and the frequency of their wearing removable dentures, both patient-paid and funded by the National Health Fund.

Open access

Ewa Kuchta, Renata Chałas, Leszek Szalewski, Elżbieta Pietryka-Michałowska and Jolanta Szymańska

Abstract

Introduction. Evaluation of the oral health among adult Poles carried out in the framework of the “National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants” study and the research results of clinical centers in Poland indicate that dental caries, periodontal diseases and missing teeth are a major health problem.

Aim. The aim of the study was determining the reasons for reporting to the dentist of 35-54-year-old people, the assessment of dental health and prosthetic needs.

Material and methods. The study comprised 154 patients aged 35-54 reporting in 2015 to the dental clinic in Lublin, which offers treatment financed by the National Health Fund or for a fee. Gender, age, the place of residence and the reason for the reporting to the dentist were analyzed. The place of residence was a village, a town of less than 200 thousand inhabitants or the city of more than 200 thousand residents. The reason for reporting to the dental clinic was a check-up visit, toothache or loss of filling. Dental condition was assessed by calculating the DMF index. The prosthetic state and needs were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed.

Results. Most patients reporting to the dental examination were women (59.09%) and residents of a big city (70.78%). More than a half of the patients (55.84%) had a check-up appointment, 25.32% appeared due to the loss of filling, and 18.83% - because of a toothache. The frequency of decay in the study group was 100% and the DMF index values ranged from 2.0 to 32.0, assuming an average of 21.18±5.02, and with the age the DMF index values increased. The highest number of decayed and extracted teeth were found in the rural population. Both residents of big cities and patients who reported for regular check-ups had the biggest number of fillings.

Conclusion. Dental caries is still a major health problem in Polish population aged 35-44. Poor oral health among the adult population in Poland is due to the low health awareness of society. This requires launching large-scale dental educational campaigns and prevention measures among adult Polish citizens, especially in rural areas.

Open access

Agata Szymańska and Elżbieta Zalewska

Abstract

The aim of this article is to investigate the similarities between the EU countries in terms of achieving the Europe 2020 Strategy goals. Due to the latest data availability, the analysis is based on the year 2014. The study uses grouping methods, including the k-means algorithm. The results indicate the existence of a division between the “old” and “new” European Union Member States. However, as is shown, some of the Strategy’s targets have already been achieved and some indicators have been nearly achieved, whereas among others, such as implementation of the headline indicator for investment in the R&D sector as a % of GDP is uncertain. The average performance of headline indicators for the EU–15 and EU–13 countries seems to be similar and exhibits the same trend of changes.

Open access

Beata Kubić-Filiks, Joanna Rosiak, Leszek Szalewski, Elżbieta Pietryka-Michałowska and Jolanta Szymańska

Abstract

Introduction. The results of epidemiological and socio-medical studies of specific age groups in Poland indicate that tooth decay and periodontal diseases still pose a significant health problem.

Aim. The aim of the study was the assessment of the reasons for reporting to the dental office and the assessment of oral health in children aged 0-6 years.

Material and methods. The study comprised 45 patients in the preschool age (2-6 years old), who for the first time reported in 2015 to the dental office, which offers treatment under the framework of an agreement with the National Health Fund or for a fee. Gender, age, the place of residence and the reason for the reporting to the dentist were analyzed. The place of residence was a village, a town of less than 200 thousand inhabitants or the city of more than 200 thousand inhabitants. The reason for reporting to the dental office was a check-up visit, toothache or loss of filling. Dental condition was assessed by calculating the dmf index. The results were statistically analyzed.

Results. Among the surveyed, there were no children younger than 2-year-olds. It was found that the dmf index was ranging in an individual patient from 0 to 20, in half of them the dmf index value was ≤ 7, while in all of the patients the average dmf index was 6.42. The percentage of respondents with dmf=0 was significantly higher among children living in the city than children living in rural areas.

Conclusion. It is necessary to intensify educational activities concerning oral health of children, addressed to pregnant women, parents and people from the living environmental of a little child. This applies in particular to promoting early reporting to the first ever, the adaptive visit of a child to the dentist, frequent and regular check-up visits, during which, regardless of the examination, prophylaxis or treatment activities can be carried out if necessary.

Open access

Elżbieta Szymańska and Joanna Kalejta

Abstract

Subject and purpose of work: The research problem is wellness tourism and its connections with forest economy. The main goal is to determine the mutual connections occurring between wellness tourism and forest economy. Materials and methods: The research was carried out in three stages using various methods: a comparative analysis of 39 spas, standardised inspections of facilities offering health tourism services and the selection of a facility being a model of good practice (case study). Results: The most important forms of the small tourist infrastructure offered to patients in forest areas are hiking and bicycle paths (92%), as well as horse trails and viewing points (about 50%). Cluster initiatives and cooperation with local governments and forest districts, consisting in joint promotion, are important. A diagram was developed, showing the interactions of forest economy and wellness tourism. Conclusions: Providers of spa services and State Forests are natural partners, yet the level of cooperation is low and mainly involves promotional activities. It is advisable to create a nationwide forest and sanatorium spa organisation that would coordinate activities in the field of forest economy to take advantage of tourism and health-promoting assets of forests.