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  • Author: Elżbieta Sitarz x
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Introduction: The study aims to present 1) a case report of an 18-year-old female patient with borderline personality disorder (BPD) 2) the diagnostic and treatment difficulties in BPD patients.

Materials and methods: The review of the literature from the years 1953-2020 searched from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases.

Discussion: Patient, 18-years old, hospitalized five times for psychiatric care, presenting self-injurious behaviours, hurting herself within forearms. A patient attempted suicide eight times. She is living with her divorced parents. The patient’s father has a new partner with whom he has children. The patient used marijuana and she was experiencing psychotic symptoms under its influence. She smokes 10 cigarettes per day and drinks alcohol once a week since she was 16 years old. Psychiatric problems appeared when the patient started learning in high school.


1. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious psychiatric condition of a difficult diagnosis that should be differentiated with many other psychiatric disorders such as an atypical or subclinical course of psychosis, affective disorders, or dissocial personality.

2. A therapeutic process of a person with BPD is based on psychotherapy and personalized treatment strategies, whereas, pharmacological treatment plays only a supporting role during BPD treatment.


The atmospheric fallout over the Rzeszów town was investigated. Intensity of dustfall (quarterly periods, 2011.2012) and its physicochemical properties (acid-base character, solubility and sequential solubility, mobile fractions) were investigated. The intensity of dustfall was variable from 25 to 83 g·m.2 and depended on the season. Contents of metals in precipitation were diverse with quantities exceeding 1%: Fe, K, Ca, Na, in 0.1.1%: Mg, Zn, Na, Ca, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, and less than 0.1%: Cu, Bi, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb. It was found that the dustfall is a possible source of metals. The atmospheric fallout can enlarge a pool of metals in soils from 0.18% up to 80%.


Introduction: Manganese has a role in the membrane transport systems, synthesis of protein, vitamin C, and vitamins B, catalysis of hematopoiesis, regulation of the endocrine, immune system, blood sugar, reproduction, digestion, and blood coagulation. Furthermore, the level of manganese concentrations in human body appears to affect the occurrence of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to search for relationships between the manganese level and the onset of schizophrenia.

Material and methods: A descriptive review was performed based on a literature search on Medline and Google scholar from 2003 to 2020, using keywords: schizophrenia, manganese, Mn. The included studies were meta-analyses, case-control studies, and cohort studies that examined differences in manganese concentrations in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

Result: Eight studies were selected for the review, with one reporting elevated levels of manganese, two showing no significant differences, and the rest including two meta-analyses stating lower manganese concentrations in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with controls.

Conclusion: In most of the researched studies, manganese concentrations in patients with schizophrenia were lower than in control groups, but not all of them reached the same conclusions. The relationship between manganese levels and schizophrenia must be further investigated.