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  • Author: Elżbieta Kowalczyk x
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Study aim: the aim of the study was to evaluate whether the use of instrumented versions of spasticity tests would provide us with clinically more useful information on the patient’s status.

Material and methods: the study included 19 children, 8–17 years old: 7 girls and 12 boys. Pendulum, velocity, and popliteal tests were performed using the Vicon system (knee joint angle, 8 muscles EMG). Dynamic movement ranges of the knee joint during velocity and popliteal tests (ROM), indices of the pendulum test, and muscle activity in dependence of velocity of movement (MA, MAST) were calculated. Correlation coefficients between ROM, Vmax, MA, and MAST were calculated to show whether instrumentation of clinical tests can validate the patient’s status more precisely.

Results: Vmax value from the pendulum test does not always correlate with ROM. Scores of MA and MAST do not correlate with ROM. Vmax generally does not correlate with MA or MAST.

Conclusions: ROM is one of the most important parameters reflecting the level of spasticity but it is not sensitive enough to detect small changes in the patient’s status. In that case, Vmax of the pendulum test and the number of activated muscles in velocity and popliteal tests could become important tools to assess changes in spasticity level, especially when motion systems are more commonly available.


In this work the compositional dependence of hyperfine interactions and magnetoelectric coupling in (BiFeO3)x-(BaTiO3)1-x solid solutions where x = 0.5-0.9 fabricated from commercial BaTiO3 in terms of the solid-state sintering method at various temperatures and over different time periods is described. In general, as the content of BaTiO3 increases, a decrease in the hyperfine magnetic field (Bhf) at 57Fe nuclei was observed. However, for samples exhibiting lower homogeneity in which the ions of Bi3+ and Fe3+ are replaced by Ba2+ and Ti4+ with lower probability, higher values of Bhf are obtained. For the sample where x = 0.6 that exhibits the coexistence of rhombohedral, regular and tetragonal phases, the highest value of the αME coefficient (3.57 mV/A) was observed, which is more than three times higher when compared to the hitherto published results.


This paper presents the results of the study on structure and magnetic properties of the perovskite-type (BiFeO3)x-(BaTiO3)1− x solid solutions. The samples differing in the chemical composition (x = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.7) were produced according to the conventional solid-state sintering method from the mixture of powders. Moreover, three different variants of the fabrication process differing in the temperatures and soaking time were applied. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were collected and compared for the set of the investigated materials. The structural transformation from rhombohedral to cubic symmetry was observed for the samples with x = 0.7. With increasing of BaTiO3 concentration Mössbauer spectra become broadened reflecting various configurations of atoms around 57Fe probes. Moreover, gradual decreasing of the average hyperfine magnetic field and macroscopic magnetization were observed with x decreasing.


The aim of the study was to determine soil-forming processes in soils formed from the Magura sandstones (Carpathian flysch) under wooded spruce Plagiothecio-Piccetum tatricum in the Gorce Mts., southern Poland. The research focused on distribution of non-silicate forms of iron and aluminum in soil profiles. The content of pyrophosphate, oxalate, and dithionite phases of iron and aluminum in the genetic horizons of four soil profiles was measured and selected pedogenic factors were calculated. Based on the obtained results podzolization and brunification are dominant soil-forming processes in the studied soils. The brunification effect was more common in the soils under the large share of Athyrium distentifolium, whereas podzolization predominates in the soils where Vaccinium myrtillus prevails in forest floor. Studied soils were classified as Dystric Endoskeletic Cambisol (Loamic, Humic), Dystric Cambisol (Siltic, Humic) and Skeletic Folic Albic Podzol (Arenic).