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  • Author: Elżbieta Kaczmarska x
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The article focuses on the changes to the face of the space of the city that have been initiated towards the end of the twentieth and which have been developing since the start of the twenty-first century in Bilbao, resulting from a broadly understood process of urban regeneration. It refers to the main problems associated with this process, which cover the spatial, economic and social sides of the city. It discusses the use of art in the humanisation of a place, improving its attractiveness and promoting modern solutions in architecture and urban planning. The process of holistic, systemic urban planning-related transformations of a decayed area has covered improving the accessibility of the site and the placement of a structure that crystallised the spatial layout. The success of this programme can constitute an indication for other centres affected by the necessity to introduce functional and spatial changes, as well as an effective municipal policy.


In the present article, we focus on the changing face of the revitalised parts of the city of Liverpool. We present the successful, consistent implementation of a comprehensive vision for the renewal of the city’s port area – neglected and dangerous still at the end of the last century. We indicate the importance of determining the elements of the space that crystallise the urban layout of the city, and skilfully applying those in future concepts. We refer to the main issues related to the renewal process, including the economic and social aspects of the city, as well as to the use of art in the humanisation of the place and the importance of social participation in the approval of design solutions.


Selected districts of Valencia and the gradual transformation of their image are presented in this article. The formulation of an appropriate strategy of action and the effect of an example that were initiated by the construction of the City of Arts and Sciences have broken through the stagnation in thinking about space. Revitalisation efforts have been initiated in many of the city’s districts, as well as in its suburban zone. The great explosion of ideas and emotions also carried over to enhancing the historical traditions of the city and the holistic, multi-directional approach to the subject matter of renewal, providing the city with economic stimulation. The author’s own analyses presented in the article pertain to: Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (City of Arts and Sciences), the new development of the Poblats Maritims coastal district, the Ciutat Fallera district and the Orba district of the town of Alfafar, located in Valencia’s metropolitan area. Various proposals for transforming the spatial structure of these districts point to the possibility of conducting an experimental hybrid policy intended to reconcile economic rescaling, entrepreneurship and cultural regionalism in the planned landscape.


Experiments leading to the procurement of subsequent inbred generations were conducted in the years 2006- 2013. Seeds obtained from open pollination and after self-pollination of four strawberry cultivars (Teresa, Senga Sengana, Kent and Chandler) and clone 1387 were used. These genotypes were evaluated for their tolerance to strong inbreeding under in vitro culture conditions. The aims of this study were to estimate the inbreeding depression of each of the progenies. During the investigation, the germination percentage as well as seedling viability were evaluated. The highest seed germination was shown for populations derived from ‘Teresa’ × open pollination (82%) and ‘Kent’ (7) S4 (78%). Seeds derived from self-pollination resulted in the lowest germination - an average of 16.8%. Generally, seed germination was significantly lower for the five S1 offspring, whose depression was 0.62, in comparison with the S4 seedlings, whose depression was 0.31. Inbred offspring showed a depression in relation to the average weight of a single seedling of 0.08 in the case of S1 progeny, whereas in the case of S4 progeny it was 0.23. The highest germination energy was shown by ‘Kent’ (7) S4 seeds (74%) and hybrids of ‘Teresa’ derived from open pollination (75%); whereas seeds obtained at the same time from self-pollination germinated 10.8% on average.