Effect of Potassium Foliar Nutrition on Changes in the Content of Carotenoid Pigments and on Some Parameters of the Nutritional Value of Tomato Fruit
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of potassium foliar nutrition on changes in the content of carotenoid pigments and on some parameters of the nutritional value of tomato fruit. The experiments were conducted on three tomato cultivars: Faustine F1, Atut F1 and Magnus F1. All trial plots with plants were additionally fertilized with 0.3% Final K and 0.3% Kalisol whilst in the control plots no foliar nutrition with potassium was applied. The chemical composition of tomato fruit depended on two factors: tomato cultivar and fertilization method and differed from year to year of investigation. In 2005 neither the cultivar nor the foliar fertilization affected the level of β-carotene while the fertilization with Final K resulted in the increase of lycopene content compared with the control. In 2006 and 2007 the fruits from treatments fertilized with Kalisol had significantly higher content of β-carotene and lycopene in compareson with those treated with Final K. The obtained results do not clearly show the effect of potassium foliar fertilization on the increase of dry matter, sugars or acids contant in tomatoes. Foliar fertilization with Kalisol increased the content of L-ascorbic acid in tomatoes in 2005 and 2007. In 2006 the content of this acid in fruit treated with Kalisol was at the same level as untreated plants but higher in plants treated with Final K. The effect of foliar nutrition with potassium had a variable influence on the level of the investigated macroelements (K, P, Ca, Mg). The content of β-carotene was positively correlated with the content of phosphorus and negatively correlated with the acidity of fruit.
Elżbieta Jędrszczyk, Barbara Skowera, Renata Kędzior and Maria Gawęda
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethephon application (Agrostym 480 SL) on the yield and yield structure of five processing tomato cultivars (Rumba, Hubal, Sokal F1 , Mieszko F1 and Polset F1 ). The experiment was carried out in the open field in the years 2009-2011 in Mydlniki near Kraków, Poland. Two weeks before harvesting, half of the plants of each cultivar were treated with Agrostym 480 SL (3 dm3 ha-1) and the other half were left as a control without spraying. Marketable yield included properly shaped and welldeveloped light red and red fruits. Non-marketable yield included pink and turning fruits, mature green and breaker fruits, and diseased fruits. A generalized linear model (GLM) for Poisson distribution with the log link function was used to determine the relationship between the years of the study and cultivar and selected values of the yield structure. The yield structure of tomato depended significantly on the weather conditions during the growing period in different years of the study, on the cultivar, and on the use of ethephon. Ethephon had a particularly beneficial effect on yield structure in the years with an unfavourable distribution of precipitation. Ethephon application in the years 2009 and 2010 had a beneficial effect on the health of tomato plants.
Elżbieta Jędrszczyk, Anna Ambroszczyk, Joanna Kopcińska, Barbara Skowera and Agnieszka Sękara
Comparison of Morphological Characteristics of Twelve Cultivars of Tomato Determinate Plants and Their Impact on Yield and its Structure
Experiment took place in the open field in the Vegetable Experimental Station of Agricultural University near Cracow in the years 2008-2010. In the experiment twelve, polish-bred determinate tomato cultivars: Sokal F1, Batory F1, Rejtan F1, Hetman F1, Babinicz, Luban, Mieszko F1, III A F1, Awizo F1, Ondraszek, Talon and Hubal were used. In the end of growing season, morphological features of plant were measured, concerning: height of plant, number of lateral shoots, length and thickness of the internode and the number of inflorescences per plant. Harvesting was performed once, at the stage of maturity of individual cultivars. The yield and its structure was calculated. The results were statistically analyzed using NIR Fisher's test, with p=0.05. The dependences of the marketable yield and total yield of tomato plants from morphological characteristics that may affect the yield were analyzed, using multiple regression. The amount of total and marketable yield was negatively correlated with an extensive vegetative growth of tomato plants. Among all the tested cultivars Ondraszek was characterized by the most preferred morphological features and creates one of the highest yields. Cultivars Ondraszek, Sokal F1 and Batory F1 were characterized higher marketable yield, than ‘Hetman F1’. Total and marketable yield depended about 40% on tomato plant morphological features.
The effect of different methods of NANO-GRO® application on tomato plant growth and yield and its quality was determined. Four treatments were used: soaking seeds with NANO-GRO®, plants spraying, double application: soaking seeds + plants spraying and a control without NANO-GRO®. The cultivar Mieszko F1 was used for the study. A significant influence of NANO-GRO® application method on tomato plant growth, yield and quality was observed. Pre-sowing application positively influenced plant height and the thickness of the stems. The highest total and marketable yield was observed in plants whose seeds were soaked with NANO-GRO® (respectively 87.02 and 53.13 t ha−1) and in those with double application (respectively 73.48 and 45.67 t ha−1). The lowest marketable yield was found in the plants from the control (37.01 t ha−1). The highest lycopene content compared to the control was measured in fruits from plants sprayed with NANO-GRO®.
Elżbieta Jędrszczyk, Barbara Skowera, Maria Gawęda and Andrzej Libik
Cultivation of field tomato in Poland meets unfavorable temperature and precipitation conditions, which affect yield and quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of temperature and precipitation conditions on the growth and development dynamics of five cultivars of processing tomato. The analysis took into account the key morphological characteristics of the plant, the inflorescence and fruit, which determine the suitability of the cultivar for processing. Analysis of the effect of meteorological elements on the stem development showed that stem length was most strongly influenced by precipitation – both total precipitation and frequency, rather than by temperature; the greater the rainfall, the more intensive stem elongation. High levels of precipitation limited gains in stem thickness. The number of flowers and fruits formed per inflorescence was negatively correlated with temperature. Excessive precipitation during the entire growing period led to formation of smaller fruits. The length and width of the fruit were negatively correlated with the frequency of precipitation in all stages, and with total precipitation during the period from planting to setting of the first fruits. A beneficial effect of temperature on the length and width of the fruit was noted during the entire growing period. The tomato fruit formed a thicker pericarp when precipitation was more frequent.
Beata Jankowska, Małgorzata Poniedziałek and Elżbieta Jędrszczyk
In 2003 - 2005 the impact of intercropping white cabbage ‘Bently F1’ with French Marigold (Tagetes patula nana ‘Kolombina’) and Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis ‘Promyk’) on the occurrence of pest insects was estimated. On plots where cabbage was intercropped the number of cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae L. and flea beetles Phyllotreta was significantly lower when compared with control variant (homogenous crop). Intercropping had an effect on the butterfly oviposition too. The lower number of eggs of the small white butterfly Pieris rapae L., large white butterfly P. brassicae L., cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. and larvae and pupae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. were observed on plots with Calendula and Tagetes. Intercropping with Pot Marigold was the most effective pest control on cabbage.
Małgorzata Poniedziałek, Agnieszka Sękara, Elżbieta Jędrszczyk and Jarosław Ciura
The experiment was carried out in 1999-2001 at the University of Agriculture in Krakow (Poland) to study the capacity of nine crops (red beet, field pumpkin, chicory, bean, barley, white cabbage, maize, alfalfa, and parsnip) to remove cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from different soil horizons (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm). The content of exchangeable Cd, Pb, and Zn decreased along with the depth in the soil profile. Red beet cultivation reduced the exchangeable Cd content in the soil by 10.3% and by 8.6% in field pumpkin, barley and maize cultivation in the 0-20 cm horizon. White cabbage and maize decreased Cd in the 20-40 cm horizon by 40.0 and 28.8%, respectively. White cabbage was found to be the most effective in removing Pb from the soil profile. Common bean, maize, and alfalfa reduced exchangeable Pb in two upper horizons of the soil: 0-20 and 20-40 cm. After field pumpkin cultivation, the decrease in Pb contamination in the 0-20 cm horizon was 7.4%. White cabbage and chicory reduced exchangeable Zn content in the surface horizon by 21.5 and 14.1%, respectively. According to their efficiency in metal reduction, maize and red beet may be indicated as potential removers of Cd, cabbage and field pumpkin, of Pb, and cabbage, of Zn.