On the Diversity of Linguistic Evidence for Conceptual Metaphor
In this article my main concern is the linguistic evidence for the view that metaphor is conceptual in nature. Since the fact that there is a great diversity of linguistic evidence for patterns of metaphorical thought has been, by and large, not emphasized enough, I overview a variety of such evidence, which can be derived from the study of different aspects of meaning within a particular language, crosslinguistically, and at a metalinguistic level. However, in itself the variety of linguistic evidence, even though it speaks very strongly for the idea that metaphor is conceptual in nature, is not sufficient to justify it. Therefore, recognizing the fact that claims about our conceptual system which are based on linguistic analyses alone remain within the "language - thought - language" circle, the article discusses also some kinds of nonlinguistic evidence for conceptual metaphors. Psycholinguistic research on metaphorical reasoning is presented as a major source of such nonlinguistic verifications. Drawing on Daniel Barenboim's BBC Reith lectures of 2006, it is also argued that convergent evidence from language and music may serve to break open the "language - thought - language" circle.
Ewelina Dorota Pogorzelska-Nowicka, Marta Brodowska, Elżbieta Górska-Horczyczak, Jolanta Godziszewska, Anna Sakowska, Iwona Wojtasik-Kalinowska and Agnieszka Wierzbicka
Broad research interest is observed over last decade, toward searching for a new natural antioxidants, which could be applied in food industry. Especially attractive seems to be those rich in polyphenols, such as cherry. Thus, presented study determine the effect of cherry extract (equivalent of 20 mg and 40 mg GAE kg−1) on physicochemical properties of ground pork frozen for 80 days. Samples were analyzed for color, color change, color attractiveness, myoglobin oxidation, fat oxidation, fatty acids profile, cooking loss, texture profile. The positive effect of cherry extract was observed for fat oxidation but cooking loss was higher in samples with extract addition. Color, color change, color attractiveness, myoglobin oxidation or fatty acids profile did not differ between groups.