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  • Author: Elżbieta Cieśla x
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Abstract

Introduction. The objective of the research was to assess the level of physical development and motor skills of six-yearold children from the Lublin voivodeship against the Polish population. Material and methods. The study included 2144 children, 997 girls and 1134 boys. To assess the level of physical fitness, selected, exercises from the EUROFIT test were used. In addition, children's ability to demonstrate simple motor skills during physical play and games was also assessed. The assessment involved: throwing a bag with the right hand, throwing a ball with both hands, gripping a bag with the right hand, kicking a ball with the right foot, jumping on the right leg and jumping with both feet. In addition, coordination during the exercises was evaluated. For measurement purposes, a four-point scale was used. The reference point was children from a nationwide sample. The results were statistically analyzed using the Student T-test and the nonparametric chi-square test. Results. Children from the Lublin region differ significantly in their level of physical fitness from children of the same age throughout Poland (p≤0.001). They achieved significantly lower results in tests assessing the strength of their arms, abdominal muscles and, the explosive strength of their lower limbs and in two tests evaluating speed (running speed: p≤0.001, hand movement speed: p≤0.001). Only in the test of their sense of balance, did both sexes, obtain significantly better results (p≤0.001). In addition, in the opinion of physical education teachers, children in the Lublin region exhibited significantly lower levels of skill when performing motor tasks. Conclusions. The results suggest that the motor potential of preschool children is being neglected, which seems to be indirectly caused by different factors in the external environment.

Abstract

This study sought to evaluate the number of those overweight and the rate of obesity among 6- and 7-year-olds living in Poland with regard to their place of residence, the parental level of education and the number of children in the family. The analysis was based on a survey of 64 544 children (33 051 boys and 31 493 girls) living in Poland. Overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass index (BMI) using the IOTF cut-off points. To evaluate the rates of overweight and obesity occurrence in children with regard to family socio-economic status, parental level of education, the number of children in the family, and the place of residence (divided into city and village) was used. ‘Only children’ were the most likely group to be overweight or obese. These children were twice as likely to be obese as their peers living in families with four or more children. Overweight and obesity occurred more often amongst children living in cities rather than those living in rural areas. Moreover, these conditions were more frequent among children whose parents had higher levels of education. The most significant predictors of childhood overweight and obesity were the number of children in the family and the educational level of the mother