Morphology of dentition in Polish children with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)
This paper compares the dimensions and non-metric dental traits between Down syndrome patients (DS) and a control group. A total of 1,210 teeth of subjects with Down syndrome (diagnosed as regular trisomy 21 type) were analyzed. The mesiodistal (MD) and labiolingual or buccolingual (BL) diameters of each dental crown were measured, and the selected non-metric dental traits evaluated. The teeth of male and female DS patients were found to have lower values of both measurements compared to controls (excepting for the mesiodistal diameter of the lower mandibular premolar both in males and females). Sexual dimorphism of dental crown dimensions characteristic of contemporary human populations (the highest M-F difference was lower than 6%) was also observed: boys' teeth, particularly canines, are bigger than girls' (2.33 on average). Disorders in maxillary tooth alignment and the faint shoveling of upper central incisors (grade 1 according to ASU scale) were noted significantly more often among Down syndrome patients, but descriptive features correlating with dental crown size were observed more rarely (e.g., the distal accessory ridge on the upper canine and tuberculum Carabelli on the first molar).
Tooth size, being the effect of interaction of genetic and prenatal factors, could be of importance in interpreting the multifactor causes of cleft lip/palate. Publications indicating decreased tooth parameters, no dental differences, or larger dimensions of teeth in cleft lip/palate patients. Researchers report mostly mesiodistal (MD) measurements of maxillary (affected) teeth. There is a lack of data for buccolingual (BL) diameters. Both MD and BL parameters have influence on the planning and performance of orthodontic treatment. The aim of this paper was to assess differences in mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions in Polish children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in comparison to patients without oral clefts. A total of 1883 permanent teeth, 1182 teeth of UCLP patients and 701 teeth of healthy participants were analyzed. Tooth diameters were performed using an orthodontic cast of dentition with a digital odontometer. The greatest anomalies were found in both maxillary canines and consisted of their reduced mesiodistal dimension and increased buccolingual dimension, resulting in a pathologically high crown shape index (BL/MD). Conclusion can be drawn that unilateral cleft lip and palate is a condition that causes morphological disturbances of varying severity in most mandibular and maxillary teeth both on the cleft and non-cleft sides.
Can economic stress affect secondary sex ratio in Poland?
The ratio of male to female births described as the male proportion is expected to be about 1.06. The secondary sex ratio can be influenced by various stresses experienced by parents (e.g., parents' exposure to chemical and physical pollution, natural phenomena, wars and economic crises). The seminal study in this field speculated that fewer goods and services than needed or desired might sufficiently stress human populations to lower the secondary sex ratio. The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between economic stress and the fluctuations of sex ratio at birth in Poland. The statistical analysis was based on annual demographic data obtained from year-books issued by the Central Statistical Office on the overall number of male and female live births in Poland in the years 1956-2005 as well as on the annual data of percentage change in total private consumption. In order to verify the hypothesis that the observed time-series of the secondary sex ratio in Poland declines with deterioration in economic conditions, we constructed mathematical models (ARIMA) of both analyzed phenomena following the statistical procedure proposed by Catalano and Bruckner . We found a statistically significant decline of SSR in Poland over the last 50 years. The decrease appeared to be stronger in villages than in towns. However, the consumption rate as related to the strength of economic stress had no effect on the fluctuation of the sex ratio at birth.