Andrzej Kowalczyk, Edyta Kozak, Magdalena Łyjak, Zygmunt Pejsak and Krzysztof Niemczuk
Macrophages and cytokines are important in the control of inflammation and regulation of the immune response. However, they can also contribute to immunopathology in the host after viral infection and the regulatory network can be subverted by infectious agents, including viruses, some of which produce cytokine analogues or have mechanisms that inhibit cytokine function. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a number of proteins which modulate cytokine and chemokine induction, host transcription factor activation, stress responses, and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to elucidate the mechanisms of immune responses to ASFV in different subpopulations of porcine macrophages. A transcriptional immune response in different resident tissue macrophages following ASFV infection was presented in many publications. ASFV-susceptible porcine macrophages can be of several origins, such as peripheral blood, lungs, bone marrow, etc. blood monocytes, blood macrophages, and lung macrophages have demonstrated a modulation of phenotype. Monocyte-derived macrophages could express surface markers not found on their monocyte precursors. Moreover, they can undergo further differentiation after infection and during inflammation. When viruses infect such cells, immunological activity can be seriously impaired or modified.
Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Kinga Urbaniak, Marian Porowski, Paweł Karbowiak, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Edyta Kozak and Zygmunt Pejsak
The outbreaks of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus (pdm-like H1N1 2009), detected for the first time in farrow-to-finish farms in Poland, were described. The nasal swabs and lung tissue collected from diseased/dead animals were tested using molecular techniques (RRT-PCR, MRT-PCR, RT-PCR, SSG-PCR, sequencing) and virus isolation. The amplification of the genetic material extracted from the tested samples confirmed the presence of the M1 gene sequence of type A influenza virus. Using MRT-PCRs no products characteristic for HA and NA of any swine influenza virus subtypes were obtained. Using SSGPCR, products specific for pandemic HA and NA gene fragments were detected. Six new pdm-like H1N1 2009 strains were isolated and characterised. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes revealed that they belong to one lineage with the pandemic strain A/California/04/2009 and other human strains, including human strains isolated in Poland in 2011.