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  • Author: Edyta Świętoń x
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Open access

Edyta Świętoń and Krzysztof Śmietanka

Abstract

Introduction: The genomes of nine H5 subtypes of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) strains identified in wild birds in Poland between 2010 and 2015 were sequenced, and their phylogenetic relationship was determined.

Material and Methods: AIV genome segments were amplified by RT-PCR and the PCR products were sequenced using Sanger method. Phylogenetic trees were generated in MEGA6 software and digital genotyping approach was used to visualise the relationship between analysed strains and other AIVs.

Results: High genetic diversity was found in the analysed strains as multiple subgroups were identified in phylogenetic trees. In the HA tree, Polish strains clustered in two distinct subclades. High diversity was found for PB2, PB1, PA and NP, since 5-8 sublineages could be distinguished. Each strain had a different gene constellation, although relationship of as much as six out of eight gene segments was observed between two isolates. A relationship with poultry isolates was found for at least one segment of each Polish strain.

Conclusion: The genome configuration of tested strains indicates extensive reassortment, although the preference for specific gene constellation could be noticed. A significant relationship with isolates of poultry origin underlines the need for constant monitoring of the AIV gene pool circulating in the natural reservoir.

Open access

Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Izabella Dolka, Edyta Świętoń and Krzysztof Śmietanka

Abstract

Introduction

Genotype VI of avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1) has pigeons and doves as its reservoir and is often termed pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 (PPMV-1). The pathogenesis of PPMV-1 infections in poultry is largely obscure. It is known that PPMV-1 requires a series of passages in chickens before it becomes adapted to gallinaceous poultry.

Material and Methods

Changes in the genome of PPMV-1 were analysed after serial passages in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, using high-throughput sequencing. Additionally, histopathological lesions induced by PPMV-1 in experimentally inoculated pigeons, chickens, and turkeys were evaluated.

Results

Following six passages of PPMV-1 in chickens, 10 nonsynonymous substitutions were found including one (in the NP protein) which dominated the genetic pool of viral quasispecies. Histopathological changes induced by the post-passage PPMV-1 strain were more prominent than changes wrought by the pre-passaged PPMV-1 strain and the lesions were most intense in pigeons followed by chickens and turkeys.

Conclusion

PPMV-1 is highly adapted to pigeons and passaging through chickens results in the acquisition of novel amino acids in the polymerase complex, which may alter the pathogenic potential of the virus.