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Open access

Edward Krzywy and Anna Iżewska

Impact of manure and organic fertilizers on the quantity and content yield of heavy metals in spring rape

The pot experiment was set up with the split plot method in three repetitions in 2006. The objects of the first factor were the doses of manure and organic fertilizers to the soil in conversion to the brought in nitrogen (85 and 170 kg N·ha-1), the objects of the second factor were the types of fertilizers: manure, sewage sludge and the composts prepared from sewage sludge. The soil used in an experiment was supplied from The Agricultural Experimental Station in Lipnik. The soil was taken from the arable layer, it has the granulometric composition of the light loamy sand.

The content of available phosphorus, potassium and magnesium formed on medium level, the pHKCl of the soil amounted to 5.13. The soil was characterized by 00 contamination of trace elements, which means that it contained the natural content of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. Spring rape var. Licosmos was the test plant.

The aim of the research was the assessment of the influence of manure, sewage sludge and compost prepared from sewage sludge on yield quantity of seeds and straw and the content of cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in spring rape.

The conducted research shows that fertilizers brought into the soil (manure, sewage sludge and compost prepared from sewage sludge) as well as two levels of fertilizing had a significant influence on the yield of the seeds and straw of spring rape. Manure, sewage sludge and compost prepared from sewage sludge played less significant influence on the decreasing or excessive increasing of heavy metals concentration in the seeds of spring rape. The double dose of fertilizers caused higher accumulation of heavy metals in the test plant. The straw of spring rape should be treated as a source of organic matter and the main nutrients for the soil. The highest concentration of copper, manganese, nickel and zinc in the straw of spring rape was noticed after the application of sewage sludge and of cadmium and lead after the application of compost prepared from sewage sludge.

Open access

Józefa Krzywy, Edward Krzywy, Ewa Krzywy-Gawrońska and Monika Rozmarynowska

The effect of sewage sludge composts and potato pulp on uptaking of macroelements by the grain and straw of the spring triticale

Taking into consideration the acid pH soil, high content of potassium in relation to nitrogen and phosphorus and the insignificant quantity of heavy metals in the potato pulp and the slight alkaline pH soil as well, high amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in relation to potassium in the municipal sewage sludge, the experiment was carried out in order to define the effect of composts from these waste on uptaking macroelements by the grain and the straw of the Wanad variety spring triticale.

The vegetative - pot experiment was carried out on the brown incomplete soil of the slight acid pH (pHKCl 6,1), of the granulometric composition of slight loam (V complex), an average content of available forms of phosphorus and potassium and a high content of magnesium.

The obtained results show that the grain and the straw of spring trticale took distinctly more macroelements under the influence the fertilization of the composts with the municipal sewage sludge (30%) and the potato pulp (30%) in comparison with the composts with the 60% participation of the potato pulp. The supplementary mineral fertilization which was used against in comparison to composts, increased uptaking the macroelements by the tested plant. The double dose of composts and mineral fertilizers visibly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cooper, magnesium and sulphur absorbance by the grain and the straw of spring trticale in comparison with the series with a single dose of composts and a supplementary mineral fertilization.

Open access

Edward Krzywy, Ewa Krzywy-Gawrońska, Józefa Krzywy and Izabela Gutowska

The influence of the composts with the participation of municipal sewage sludge on the available forms of phosphorus in the soil as well as the yield of the seeds of spring rape

The field and laboratory experiment was carried on the brown incomplete soil of the complex of rye good. The obtained results in the yield experiment show that the composts with the participation of municipal sewage sludge increased essentially the yield of the seeds of spring rape in comparison with the control variant. Doubling of the doses of mineral nitric - potassium fertilization against the background of the composts did not have a significant influence on increasing the yield of the seeds of spring rape in comparison with the single doses. The composts with the participation of municipal sewage sludge in the field and laboratory experiment caused a significant increase of the content of the available forms of phosphorus in the soil. As time went by the distribution of the composts in the soil, the content of the available forms of phosphorus increased.

Open access

Anna Iżewska, Edward Krzywy and Krzysztof Balcer

Impact of sewage sludge and composts prepared from sewage sludge on the content and uptake of macronutrients by straw of miscanthus sacchariflorus

The pot experiment was set up under the conditions of the hall of vegetation in 2002. The municipal sewage sludge and composts produced with the GWDA method in 2001 based on municipal sewage sludge with the 30% addition of structuring materials, in conversion to the dry matter, were used in the experiment. The pot experiment was set up with the split-split-plot method in three repetitions. The objects of the first factor were the doses of sewage sludge and composts (1 dose = 13 g, 2 dose = 26 g, 3 dose = 39 g, 4 dose = 52 g of dry matter in relation to the soil weight in the pot), the objects of the second factor were the types of organic fertilization (sewage sludge, 0,5-year compost prepared from sewage sludge, 1,5-year compost prepared from sewage sludge), objects of the third factor were the variants with and without nitrogen and potassium fertilization in the rates of 0.27 g N and 0.26 g K per pot. The experiment was conducted in Kick-Brauckmann's pots of 9 dm3 capacity in which 8 kg of soil were placed. The test plant cultivated in the experiment was Miscanthus sachariflorus. Seedlings of Miscanthus were planted in the first year of the experiment. The obtained results show that the content of macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium in straw of Miscanthus sachariflorus was not dependent on the type of organic fertilizers used in the experiment. However, supplemental nitrogen-potassium fertilization significantly increases the content of potassium in the test plant in all three years of research and nitrogen in the second year.

The conducted research shows that the uptake of macronutrients depended on the dry matter yield quantity and the content of a given element in the yield. Within three years the straw of Miscanthus sacchariflorus took up the most of potassium - 11.63 g from the pot and the least of magnesium 1.20 g from the pot. The amount of the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium by the biomass of Miscanthus sacchariflorus from the pot on the objects fertilized with organic fertilizers was the highest in the second year of the research, which was a result of mineralization of the applied fertilizers.

Open access

Edward Krzywy, Ewa Możdżer and Żenisgul Bakenowa

Abstract

Four granular fertilisers were produced from industrial waste products, such as CaSO4 ∙ 2H2O and FeSO4 ∙ 7H2O, coniferous and deciduous sawdust mixture and municipal sewage sludge with addition of mineral fertilisers. Based on the content of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and heavy metals, these granular fertilisers can be included into the group of organic-mineral fertilisers. In order to determine their manurial value, a vegetation experiment was carried out with these granular fertilisers in which spring rape and spring triticale were the test plants. The study results show that granular fertilisers increased signifi cantly the yields of test plants and their content of macroelements. The granular fertilisers containing FeSO4 ∙ 7H2O increased signifi cantly the yields of test plants and the contents of macroelements when compared to those with CaSO4 ∙ 2H2O. As affected by the granular fertilisers containing CaSO4 ∙ 2H2O, there was more phosphorus, calcium and sulphur in the test plants. The granular fertilisers composed of the waste products mentioned above can be a cheap source of organic matter and nutrients for plants and may reduce possibility of environmental contamination.