The aim of the study was to determine some physicochemical and chemical properties of post-mining soils reclaimed in different directions, after completed sulfur exploitation by means of the borehole (Frash) method. The study was conducted in 2013 in the former Sulfur Mine „Jeziórko” located on the Tarnobrzeg Plain between Tarnobrzeg and Stalowa Wola cities (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, south Poland). It covered an area of land reclaimed as the arable or forest land. The most important problems connected with sulfur exploitation was the occurrence of a layer of solid sulfur which was previously removed. During the reclamation process, embankments and excavations were leveled through replenishing large amounts of ground, post-flotation lime, mineral fertilizers, and sewage sludge. Moreover, studies upon degraded and non-reclaimed area (by 2013) were also carried out. Examined land was characterized by granulometric composition of sands, loamy sands, and sandy loams. Re-leveling of degraded land using post-flotation lime contributed to lower levels of acidification of reclaimed soil surface. The highest contents of organic carbon and total nitrogen were found in the surface layers of the soils studied. Content of available potassium ranged from very low to average. The soils were characterized by a high content of available magnesium in the surface layers of the profiles (maximum 71.8 mg·kg−1 in soil reclaimed as forest land), while below the Mg content was usually low. Contents of individual exchangeable cations could be lined up in a following decreasing sequence: Ca2+>Na+>K+>Mg2+ Referring to the topsoil, reclaimed soils were characterized by more favorable properties (pH close to neutral, lower acidity, higher sorption capacity, higher organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available forms of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium concentrations) as compared to non-reclaimed soil.
The aim of the study was to investigate the basic physicochemical and chemical properties of six soil profiles located in the surrounding of the Magura National Park (S Poland). The type of agricultural use and terrain relief were the main criteria for choosing the soil profiles. The research identified the following types or sub-types of soils: Eutric Gleysols, Dystric Cambisols, Eutric Cambisols, Gleyic Luvisols. The analyzed soils were characterized by particle size distribution of a silty clay or silt. They were usually strongly acidified as evidenced by low pH (in 1M KCl, values ranged from 3.8 to 5.8), high values of hydrolytic acidity (from 0.8 up to 10 cmol(+)·kg-1) and exchangeable acidity (from 0.05 to 4.05 cmol(+)·kg-1), as well as remarkable concentration of exchangeable aluminum (from 0 to 3.96 cmol(+)·kg-1). The organic carbon content in studied profiles did not exceed (except from gley soil in profile ) 30 g·kg-1 and it decreased along with the depth to several g·kg-1 in parent rock. These soils were characterized by not very high content of total nitrogen (from 0.3 to 9.39 g·kg-1) and low available phosphorus concentration (from 3.5 to 90.3 mg P2O5·kg-1). Contents of available potassium (from 82 to 570 mg K2O·kg-1) and magnesium (from 33 to 412 mg Mg·kg-1) allow for classifying the profiles studied as soils moderately or highly abundant in K and Mg. The highest levels of biogenic elements were determined in surface horizons. Studied soils were characterized by high total sorption capacity (T) - from 7.04 to 63.4 cmol(+)·kg-1. Sum of base cations (S) reached values from 3.01 to 61.2 cmol(+)·kg-1, which resulted in high base saturation (V) (maximum over 96%). The base saturations in profiles of the soils increased along with depth.
The paper presents the results of a 3-year field experiment designed to evaluate the content of organic carbon in brown soil (Haplic Cambisol Dystric) developed from a light loamy sand under legumes cultivation. Experimental factors were: species of legume crop (colorful-blooming pea (Pisum sativum), chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativus), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), methods of legumes tillage (legumes in pure culture and in mixture with naked oats) and mineral N fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N·ha−1). Cultivation of legumes on sandy soil did not result in an increase of organic carbon content in the soil after harvest as compared to the initial situation, i.e. 7.39 vs. 7.76 g·kg−1 dry matter (DM), on average, respectively. However, there was the beneficial effect of this group of plants on soil abundance in organic matter, the manifestation of which was higher content of organic carbon in soils after legume harvest as compared to soils with oats grown (7.21 g·kg−1 DM, on average). Among experimental crops, cultivation of pea exerted the most positive action to organic carbon content (7.58 g·kg−1, after harvest, on average), whereas narrow-leaved lupin had the least effect on organic carbon content (7.23 g·kg−1, on average). Pure culture and greater intensity of legume cultivation associated with the use of higher doses of mineral nitrogen caused less reduction in organic carbon content in soils after harvest.