E.K. Eifediyi, O.A. Komolafe, H.E. Ahamefule and A. Falola
A field trial was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin during the 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons to assess the effect of tillage methods and poultry manure application on the growth and yield of sesame. The experiment was laid out as a split plot arrangement, fitted into a randomized complete block replicated thrice. The factors consisted of three tillage methods and four levels of poultry manure application (0, 5, 10, and 15 tha−1). The result revealed that tillage and poultry manure significantly (P<0.05) increased the growth and yield of sesame. Increasing the rate of poultry manure resulted in an increase in the net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, and crop growth rate. The yield in 2016 was higher than that of 2015 due to higher rainfall and residual effect of the previous cropping season. Yield per hectare was optimized using conventional tillage method and poultry manure at 15 tha−1. Although the conventional tillage and poultry manure treatments produced the highest yield, the control plot gave the highest cost and returns (return per investment) in the two years of study due to high cost of farm inputs. The result of the study further affirms farmer’s reluctance on the use of external inputs for yield enhancement in sesame.
N.B. Izuogu, T.U. Olajide, E.K. Eifediyi and C.M. Olajide
Screenhouse and field trials were conducted at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effect of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on the nodulation of five varieties of cowpea (IT89KD-288, IT82D-994, IT93K-452-1, T89K-391 and TT97 568-18). Half of the experimental plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita eggs (n = 1500) while the remaining half served as uninoculated control plants. Data on growth and yield of cowpea, root gall, nodulation, and nematodes population densities in nodules were collected. Other parameters assessed included colour of dissected infected and uninfected nodules, texture of the nodules and varietal performance of the cowpeas. The results of both screenhouse and field trials were consistent in yield and visual observations of texture and colour. The yield of nematode-free varieties was significantly higher than that of M. incognita-infected ones. Infected nodules were dark brown in colour while the healthy ones were pink. For the field trials, nodulation counts in nematode inoculated plants were inversely proportional to the number of galls in their uninoculated counterparts in some varieties. Of all varieties, IT89KD-288 was most resistant to M. incognita. Due to high cost involved in the management of nematodes, especially with synthetic chemicals, variety IT89KD-288 is recommended for use in nematode endemic areas in Nigeria. Further study needs to be done on the histopathology of the infected and uninfected roots and nodules of these cowpea varieties.
I. Kareem, O.B. Jawando, E.K. Eifediyi, W.B. Bello and Y. Oladosu
Soils of the savannah zones of Nigeria are low in plant nutrients and peasant farmers; therefore, rely on external inputs in the form of organic and inorganic manure for sustainable yield. They also sow their seeds at suboptimal plant population density, thereby providing opportunity for weeds to thrive. Moreover, farmers use saved seeds from the previous cropping season for planting, which often results in low yield. A study was conducted to assess the growth and yield of two maize cultivars under the influence of organic fertilizer and plant population density. Treatments used were factorial combinations of three levels of poultry manure (0, 2.5, 5.0 t/ha), two population densities (95,556 and 53,333 plants/ha) and two maize varieties (DMR-ESR-Y and Suwan-1-SR). Data were collected on number of leaves, plant height, leaf area, stem girth, root and shoot dry weight, total dry weight, days to tasseling, days to silk appearance, grain yield per hectare, number of seeds per cob, seed rows per cob, weight of 100 seeds and shelling percentage. The results revealed significant improvement (p≤ 0.05) in all parameters examined, when 5 t/ha poultry manure was applied to Suwan-1-SR at density 53,333 plants/ha. However, there was marginal difference between 5 and 2.5 t/ha in grain production. Therefore, application of 2.5 t/ha poultry manure for production of Suwan-1-SR maize variety at plant density 53,333 plants/ha could be used for getting optimum yield, that can feed the growing population of maize consumers coupled with better straw production for animal feed.
E.K. Eifediyi, H.E. Ahamefule, S.U. Remison, T.H. Aliyu and N. Akanbi
Soils of the southern Guinea savannah zone of Nigeria are low in organic matter content, inherently infertile due to intensive weathering and leaching caused by high temperature and rainfall. A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin, during the 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, to determine the effect of neem seed cake and NPK fertilizer on the performance of sesame crop (Ex Sudan cv). Treatments consisted of three levels of NPK fertilizer 20:10:10, applied at 0, 100 and 200 kg ha−1 and neem seed cake (NSC), applied at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 t ha−1. The experiment was laid out in a 3 x 5 factorial arrangement replicated thrice. Data were collected on soil parameters (some physical and chemical properties), plant growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves and leaf area) and yield components (number of capsules per plant, weight of seeds per plant and weight of seeds per hectare). The result of the study indicated that using the highest level of application of NPK fertilizer, neem seed cake and their combinations significantly (p<0.05) increased the growth of sesame plants, in the 2 years of study. However, the 100 kg ha−1 of NPK and 3 tha−1 and their combinations gave the highest yield and yield components of sesame during the period of study. The result of the study revealed that using high levels of NPK, neem seed cake and their combinations favoured vegetative growth at the expense of seed formation. Farmers are therefore encouraged to use organic and inorganic fertilizer moderately to prevent excessive vegetative growth of sesame.
E.K. Eifediyi, F.O. Ogedegbe, N.B. Izuogu, C.A. Adedokun, A. Katibi and S.U. Remison
The Guinea savannah zone of Nigeria is beset by increasing population and infrastructural development, thereby putting pressure on available land with rapidly declining fertility due to low organic matter content, soil erosion, high temperature and seasonal bush burning. Sesame is cultivated in this zone and the yield has remained very low, compared to yield in other parts of the world. This could be attributed to poor nutrient status and poor cultural practices used by peasant farmers. A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, in a southern Guinea savannah zone in 2015 and repeated in 2016 cropping season to determine the effects of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a plant growth regulator and NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield of sesame. The experiment was laid out as a factorial arrangement, fitted into a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The factors imposed were 2,4-D (0, 5 and 10 ppm ha−1) and NPK 15:15:15 (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha−1). Data were collected on vegetative traits (plant height, number of leaves, leaf area) and yield components (number of capsules per plant; yield per plant and per hectare). The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the Genstat statistical package 17th edition and significant means were separated by using the least significant difference at 5% level of probability. The result revealed that using plant growth regulator and NPK fertilizer had significant effects (p<0.05) on plant height (151 cm) and yield per hectare (530 kg/ha). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the seeds further reaffirmed the presence of bioactive compounds, such as saponins, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which are important health promoting food in the seeds.