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E. Rudnik and P. Biskup

Abstract

Electrochemistry of lead telluride stationary electrode was studied in nitric acid solutions of pH 1.5-3.0. E-pH diagram for Pb-Te-H2O system was calculated. Results of cyclic voltammetry of Pb, Te and PbTe were discussed in correlation with thermodynamic predictions. Anodic dissolution of PbTe electrode at potential approx. -100÷50 mV (SCE) resulted in tellurium formation, while above 300 mV TeO2 was mainly produced. The latter could dissolve to HTeO+ 2 under acidic electrolyte, but it was inhibited by increased pH of the bath.

Open access

E. Rudnik and J. Sobesto

Cyclic Voltammetric Studies of Tellurium in Diluted HNO3 Solutions

Electrochemistry of tellurium stationary electrode was studied in nitric acid solutions of pH 2.0 and 2.5. Two sparingly soluble products were formed at potentials above 200 mV (SCE): TeO2 and H2TeO3. H2TeO3 and TeO2 could dissolve to HTeO+ 2 under acidic electrolyte, but this process was hindered at pH 2.5. Cathodic polarization of tellurium electrode below -800 mV was accompanied by evolution of H2Te, which was then oxidized at the potentials approx. -700 mV.

Open access

E. Rudnik

Abstract

Paper reports results of the research on the application of ammoniacal solutions (sulfate, chloride, carbonate) for hydrometallurgical treatment of smelted low-grade e-waste. Two Cu-Zn-Sn-Ag-Pb alloys were analyzed in details and discussed. Leaching of copper from the alloys was slow in sulfate solution, but the dissolution rate decreased in chloride and carbonate baths. Anodic alloys dissolution was uniform in sulfate and carbonate electrolytes, but high degradation of the material was observed in chloride bath. Chemical and phase composition of slimes and cathodic deposits produced during electrolysis were characterized. In all cases, separation of copper from other metals was found, but efficiencies of the processes were low.

Open access

E. Rudnik, G. Włoch and A. Czernecka

Abstract

Ni - Sn alloys were electrodeposited from acidic chloride-sulphate solution in potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions. Cyclic voltammetry and Hull cell were used for the selection of the appropriate deposition potentials and cathodic current densities, respectively. In the potentiostatic conditions (-1.0 - -1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl) porous deposits (~7-10 wt% Ni) were obtained, while dense coatings (~15-34 wt% Ni) were produced in the galvanostatic conditions (0.5-1.5 A/dm2). In both cases, deposits consisted of β - Sn and Ni3Sn4 phases. Speciation of the bath was also calculated.

Open access

I. Dobosz, E. Rudnik and L. Burzyńska

Codeposition of SiC Particles with Electrolytic Nickel

Ni/SiC composite coatings were produced by electrodeposition from chloride-sulphate bath. The effect of SiC concentration on the percentage of embedded particles at two current densities (0.75 and 1.50 A·dm-2) was determined. SiC content in the nickel matrix was in the range of 13-23 vol%, but lower values were found for higher current density. Increased particles contents in the coatings practically did not change microhardness of deposits (approximately 300 HV), but it increased corrosion resistance. Morphology and particle distribution in the deposits was studied with optical and transmission electron microscopes. Specific surface charge of SiC particles as well as adsorption of Ni2+ions on the powder particles were also determined.

Open access

E. Rudnik and P. Sikora

Abstract

Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II)-Cu(I) mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.