Introduction:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common infectious cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. It is a severe issue with increasing incidence in healtcare facilities and commmunities. Early and appropriate testing of CDI is very imortant. There are many different approaches that can be used in the CDI laboratory diagnostics. Recently performed studies evaluated diagnostic algorithms to optimize laboratory CDI diagnostics. The aim of the work was to implement an optimal algorithm of testing methods in CDI diagnostics.
Materials and methods: The retrospective analysis of patients’ samples suspected on CDI was carried out in 2017. The data was analysed from the Laboratory Klinicka Biochemia in Zilina. The application of ESCMID re -commendation criteria for algorithm of testing, together with procedures in laboratory practice was carried out.
Results: The analysis of the data showed that the applied algorithm or testing in CDI and highlighted the importance of preanalytic phase, and the evaluation of testing methods and results, together with clinical findings. Two- and three- step algorithm together with cultivation methods were applied. 87,6% of samples could be eva -luated with positive or negative results according to the 2-step algorhitm. Further samples were assessed and tested by ELISA test or PCR method.
Conclusion: CDI represents a significant burden in healthcare facilities. An early diagnostics and interpretation helps to start the early treatment and helps in surveillence of the infection.
This study summarises the results of in vitro screening of the nematophagous activity of Stropharia rugosoannulata and Arthrobotrys oligospora. The tests were conducted with Meloidogyne hapla plant parasitic nematode juveniles placed into Petri dishes containing cultures of the tested fungal species. Immobilisation of the nematodes was observed after 4 and 24 hours. Both species of fungi showed nematophagous activity, however it was much stronger and faster in the case of S. rugosoannulata.
Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis, serious parasitic diseases caused by larval stages of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus has been diagnosed in Slovakia for a long time. Study presents case of 49-years old patient with accidentally diagnosed one big (60 mm) and multiple small (2 - 24 mm) hypoechogenic structures localised in right liver lobe. According to positive serology to E. granulosus antigen and results of imaging examinations the patient was classifi ed as possible case of cystic echinococcosis and treated with mebendazole. Later, due to the worsening of clinical, laboratory and CT fi ndings surgical biopsy was performed and surgical biopsy and subsequent PCR examination of liver tissue confi rmed the diagnosis of alveolar echinococosis. Clinical picture of disease imitating cystic echinococcosis in presented case report, together with results of serological tests confi rmed importance of accurate differential diagnosis of echinococcosis. Each aspect of clinical and laboratory results should be considered responsibly, however, sometimes only molecular techniques can solve the problem of differential diagnosis.
The oral cavity is a biologically significant and complex site of the human body. It is a gateway into the internal environment of the organism. There are many processes, such as the beginning of digestion, speech creation, and sensory perception of taste. Oral health is closely related to the general health of a person. The oral cavity contains an enormous number of microorganisms that can cause various diseases. Oral bacteria are responsible for diseases in the mouth, but can also seriously harm human health. The oral microbiome also serves as an indicator of health, respectively morbidity of the human organism. Compared to healthy children, mentally disabled children suffer from many congenital and acquired diseases and disorders that affect their overall and oral health. These children require a specific approach to the examination, but also to the therapy.
Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the prevention of oral diseases in children, whether healthy or mentally disabled.
Dirofilariosis is a vector-borne disease that is spreading in Europe from the southern endemic regions to the northern countries, including Slovakia. The dog parasites Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are zoonotic agents, responsible for the development of human pulmonary and subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively. The present paper reports the third case of human dirofilariosis in Slovakia caused by D. repens. The pacient, a 41-year-old woman, was referred with tumour process in the subcutaneous area of the right forearm. Within 14 days the USG confirmed the rapid increase of the nodule from 20 × 10 mm to 30 × 25 mm. The surgical extirpation of the tumour was indicated. Histological examination revealed the formation with eosinofilic rime and the presence of a worm in the centre, detected as D. repens.
The authors describe a case of a rare infectious disease of intra-articular tissues of the temporomandibular joint caused mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In scientific literature, under the heading invasive (malignant) external otitis, we can find cases of an infectious disease of the external acoustic meatus caused by a microbial agent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which can subsequently penetrate into structures. However, a primary affliction of the abovementioned structures has not been described. Localisation and severity of the infection requires long-term and massive treatment with antibiotics.