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Open access

Elżbieta Jartych, Agata Lisinska-Czekaj, Dariusz Oleszak and Dionizy Czekaj

Abstract

The aim of this work was to prepare BiFeO3 by modified solid-state sintering and mechanical activation processes and to investigate the structure and hyperfine interactions of the material. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied as complementary methods. In the case of sintering, BiFeO3 phase was obtained from the mixture of precursors with 3 and 5 % excess of Bi2O3 during heating at 1023 K. Small amounts of impurities such as Bi2Fe4O9 and sillenite were recognized. In the case of mechanical activation, the milling of stoichiometric amounts of Bi2O3 and Fe2O3 followed by isothermal annealing at 973 K resulted in formation of the mixture of BiFeO3, Bi2Fe4O9, sillenite and hematite. After separate milling of individual Bi2O3 and Fe2O3 powders, mixing, further milling and thermal processing, the amount of desired BiFeO3 pure phase was significantly increased (from 70 to 90 %, as roughly estimated). From Mössbauer spectra, the hyperfine interaction parameters of the desired BiFeO3 compound, paramagnetic impurities of Bi2Fe4O9 and sillenite were determined. The main conclusion is that the lowest amount of impurities was obtained for BiFeO3 with 3 % excess of Bi2O3, which was sintered at 1023 K. However, in the case of mechanical activation, the pure phase formed at a temperature by 50 K lower as compared to solid-state sintering temperature. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that for both sintered and mechanically activated BiFeO3 compounds, thermal treatment at elevated temperature led to a partial eliminating of the paramagnetic impurities.

Open access

C. Rapiejko, B. Pisarek, E. Czekaj and T. Pacyniak

Abstract

The work presents the test results of the crystallisation and cooling of magnesium alloys: AM60 and AZ91, with the use of the TDA method. The tested alloys were cast into ceramic shells heated up to 180°C, produced according to the technology of the shell production in the investment casting method. The TDA method was applied to record and characterize the thermal effect resulting from the phase transformations occurring during the crystallisation of magnesium alloys. The kinetics and dynamics of the thermal processes of the crystallisation of AM60 and AZ91 in the ceramic shells were determined. Metallographic tests were performed with the use of an optical microscope as well as scanning microscopy, together with the EDS chemical analysis of the phases present in the tested casts. A comparison of these test results with the thermal effect recorded by way of the TDA method was made.

Open access

E. Jartych, T. Pikula, M. Mazurek, W. Franus, A. Lisinska-Czekaj, D. Czekaj, D. Oleszak, Z. Surowiec, A. Aksenczuk and A. Calka

Abstract

Three different methods were used to obtain Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics, i.e. solid-state sintering, mechanical activation (MA) with subsequent thermal treatment, and electrical discharge assisted mechanical milling (EDAMM). The structure and magnetic properties of produced Bi5Ti3FeO15 samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The purest Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics was obtained by standard solid-state sintering method. Mechanical milling methods are attractive because the Bi5Ti3FeO15 compound may be formed at lower temperature or without subsequent thermal treatment. In the case of EDAMM process also the time of processing is significantly shorter in comparison with solid-state sintering method. As revealed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, at room temperature the Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics produced by various methods is in paramagnetic state.

Open access

Z. Górny, S. Kluska-Nawarecka, E. Czekaj and D. Wilk-Kołodziejczyk

Abstract

The object of the experimental studies was to determine the mechanical properties of a hypoeutectic EN AC - 42100 (EN ACAlSi7Mg0,3) silumin alloy, where the said properties are changing as a result of subjecting the samples of different types to solution treatment. An important aspect of the studies was the use type of device for the heat treatment. As a basic parameter representing the mechanical properties, the tensile strength of the metal (Rm) was adopted.

Open access

W. Kozdruń, G. Woźniakowski, E. Samorek-Salamonowicz and H. Czekaj

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the infectious agents isolated from infection - suspected geese sent for the diagnostic examination to National Veterinary Research Institute. The birds were sent from goose flocks localized in different parts of Poland. Totally, 1,013 birds from 122 flocks were examined. The presence of goose parvovirus (GPV), goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV), and goose circovirus (GoCV) was detected by triplex PCR. The presence of GPV DNA was shown in 36 flocks. The disease was most frequently diagnosed in goslings aging 3.5 weeks (ten flocks), and 2.5 weeks (six flocks). The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of VP1 encoding region has shown close similarity of Polish GPV strains within the group which ranged from 92% to 100%. Moreover, the similarity level of these strains with GPV isolated in Europe was from 91.3% to 100%. The occurrence of GoCV DNA was shown in 25 goose flocks. The presence of GoCV DNA was found among geese aged from 2 to 6 weeks, but predominantly in those aging 3.5 (three flocks) and 5 weeks (five flocks). The sequence analysis of PCR products from the sequenced region of ORFC1 capsid protein of GoCV has shown that Polish isolates share from 85% to 91% similarity with the sequences of GoCV strains isolated in other countries. The presence of DNA of GHPV was found in 3-week-old geese. During the last 2 years the presence of GHPV was confirmed in three flocks of goslings at the age from 3 to 3.5 weeks. During the last 12 years the occurrence of co-infection with GPV and GoCV was detected in six flocks aging from 5 to 6 weeks.

Open access

J.S. Niczyporuk, G. Woźniakowski, H. Czekaj and E. Samorek-Salamonowicz

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of adenovirus infection on the replication of Marek’s disease virus vaccine strain Rispens/CVI988 during in vitro co-infection studies. Adenovirus field strain JN-5/10j was isolated from sick chickens. The study was conducted in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures (CEF). Monolayers of CEFs were infected with Rispens strain and field adenovirus strain JN-5/10j with different doses (101.0-103.0 TCID50) in the following manner: a) simultaneously, b) first, infection with Rispens strain and after 24 h infection with adenovirus strain JN-5/10j and c) infection with adenovirus strain JN-5/10j 24 h before infection with Rispens strain. After 18, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation, the copy number of the pp38 gene of Rispens strain was determined using Real-time PCR. The results indicated that the Adenovirus infection before the infection with Rispens strain reduced the replication of the pp38 gene after 48 h by 2 log10.

Open access

S. Pysz, E. Czekaj, R. Żuczek, M. Maj and J. Piekło

Abstract

The article presents the analysis of properties of the high-strength AlZnMgCu (abbr AlZn) aluminium alloy and estimates possibilities of its application for responsible structures with reduced weight as an alternative to iron alloy castings. The aim of the conducted studies was to develop and select the best heat treatment regime for a 7xx casting alloy based on high-strength materials for plastic working from the 7xxx series. For analysis, wrought AlZnMgCu alloy (7075) was selected. Its potential of the estimated as-cast mechanical properties indicates a broad spectrum of possible applications for automotive parts and in the armaments industry. The resulting tensile and fatigue properties support the thesis adopted, while the design works further confirm these assumptions.

Open access

E. Czekaj, J. Zych, Z. Kwak and A. Garbacz-Klempka

Abstract

Issues connected with high quality casting alloys are important for responsible construction elements working in hard conditions. Traditionally, the quality of aluminium casting alloy refers to such microstructure properties as the presence of inclusions and intermetallic phases or porosity. At present, in most cases, Quality index refers to the level of mechanical properties – especially strength parameters, e.g.: UTS, YS, HB, E (Young’s Modulus), K 1c (stress intensity factor). Quality indexes are often presented as a function of density. However, generally it is known, that operating durability of construction elements depends both on the strength and plastic of the material. Therefore, for several years now, in specialist literature, the concept of quality index (QI) was present, combines these two important qualities of construction material. The work presents the results of QI research for casting hypoeutectic silumin type EN AC-42100 (EN AC-AlSi7Mg0.3), depending on different variants of heat treatment, including jet cooling during solution treatment.

Open access

S. Pysz, M. Maj and E. Czekaj

Abstract

Of great importance in the selection of materials for cast structures is keeping a proper balance between the mechanical and plastic properties, while preserving the relevant casting properties. This study has been devoted to an analysis of the choice and application of high-strength aluminium-based alloys maintaining sufficient level of casting properties. The high level of tensile strength (Rm > 500 MPa) matched with satisfactory elongation (A > 3%) is important because materials of this type are used for cast parts operating in the aerospace, automotive, and military industries. These beneficial relationships between the high tensile strength and toughness are relatively easy to obtain in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys subjected to plastic forming and proper heat treatment. In gravity cast products, on the other hand, whether poured into sand moulds or metal moulds (dies), obtaining this favourable combination of properties poses a number of research problems (mostly resulting from the alloy chemical composition) as well as technical and technological difficulties.

Open access

C. Rapiejko, B. Pisarek, E. Czekaj and T. Pacyniak

Abstract

The work presents the test result of the influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of AZ91 alloy, Vickers micro-hardness and Brinell hardness. Studies cooling and crystallization of AZ91 alloy was cast into the ceramic shells preheated to 180 ° C and then air-cooled at ambient temperature or intensively super cooled in the liquid coolant. The TDA method was applied to record and characterize the thermal effect resulting from the phase transformations occurring during the crystallization of AZ91 alloy. The kinetics and dynamics of the thermal processes of crystallization of AZ91 alloy in the ceramic shells were determined. Metallographic tests were performed with the use of an optical microscope. A comparison of these test results with the thermal effect recorded by way of the TDA method was made. Influence of cooling rate of AZ91 on HV0, 01 micro-hardness and Brinell hardness alloy was examined