Possibilities of alternative generation II biotests at Artemia
The meaning of alternative biotests is described and discussed. The paper also deals with the possible application of the developmental studies of the sea Artemia franciscana nauplinus. Five-day biotests including the validation criteria are described. The possibilities of the biotests are very wide. Additionally to the standard applications in ecotoxicology, there is a possibility of modelling pharmacological experiments or monitoring the effects of ionizing radiation and the interaction with other chemicals.
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and Hg in the muscle, hepatopankreas, kidney and gonads of European chub (Squalius cephalus) from the middle course of the Nitra River, during spring and autumn seasons by AAS method. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 wet weight) in the muscle ranged as follows: Ni 0.15-1.18, Co 0.09-0.58, Pb 0.39-1.66, Cd 0.04-0.29, Hg 0.85-2.71. Statistically significant differences among individual tissues, as well as between seasons have been recorded. Higher metals concentrations were detected in inner organs than in muscle. Permissible limits for safe consumption in the case of Pb, Cd and Hg have been exceeded in 100%, 95% and 100%, respectively. Currently, for the Co and Ni are not set any permissible limits.
Czechia lost more than 3,000,000 inhabitants as a result of the WW II. Germans displaced from the borderland formed the largest part. The newcomers after 1945 were of a different character – without any relation to their new settlements. This population formed a special social milieu familiar with the socialist way of thinking and that of a suppressed middle class. The consequences of it are seen in demographic, economic, environmental and social areas. After 1989, the factories in the borderland were mostly closed down, armies left the territory, people were not prepared to start their own businesses. Large-scale landscape protection formed a new barrier. Tourism is not able to substitute for the decrease in employment. The hope in cross-border collaboration has been overestimated.
Green marketing is possibly the newest type of marketing. Recently, it has also been the most discussed one by organizations, companies and even states. Green marketing tries to produce, promote and recycle products that are friendly to the environment. Green marketing is a global concern and it is going to have a better future. However, this type of marketing meets a few problems such as much effort to replace conventional products and a lack of confidence. Many companies produce and promote such products as much as possible. In spite of this, the public is still sceptical. The paper presents the theoretical important knowledge on green marketing, its definitions, customer behaviour formulas, and its potential.
Most of the literature on student between-track mobility or school choice examines decision making in comprehensive systems or in tracked general education schools. In this article we present data on inter-school mobility (transfers) of upper secondary students in a differentiated educational system with academic, professional and vocational tiers and with a complex scheme of programmes and qualifications. This study is based on administrative microdata from the Czech school register merged with databases containing geographical information. We performed an explorative analysis of 4,533 events of school change with focus on the spatial aspects of VET student transfers. The preliminary results confirm the usefulness of this approach in studying the role school distance plays in programme and school choice.
The South Moravian rural borderland has been studied as an example of peripheral countryside. It is defined by municipalities the cadastral districts of which border on the state frontiers. The borderland is considerably differentiated in dependence on the natural conditions, historic development, geographical position and subjective circumstances. The period after 1990 experienced a downturn in production sectors, development of the tertiary sector, quite positive demographic evolution with a positive migration balance (with some exceptions), further intensification of nature conservation and landscape protection, increased unemployment rate and lower standard of formal education. The strengths encompass the maintained and, in many cases, strictly protected landscape, suitable settlement structures with large villages, suitable conditions for agricultural activities, development of balneology and important transition position of the central part of the borderland. The weaknesses include, in particular, the distinctly seasonal character of tourism (short summer period), below-average education, poor condition of many local roads and exposedness of the territory to erosion. Opportunities include possibilities of international cooperation, support of non-production agriculture, demand for relevant forms of tourism, support of small and medium sized businesses. Threats are understood as the outflow of young and educated people, devastation of the environment through intensive farming and reduced economic competitive advantages. Strategies may consist in the preference of economic development or in focusing on the improvement of local inhabitants’ life quality.