Dysphania Anthelmintica (Amaranthaceae), New to the Non-Native Flora of Italy, and Taxonomic Considerations on the Related Species
Dysphania anthelmintica is recorded for the first time for Italy (Lazio region). Morphological and ecological characteristics of this plant and its invasive status, as compared with those of Dysphania ambrodioides and Chenopodium suffruticosum, are presented and discussed. Taxonomical notes are also provided.
A nomenclatural study concerning the annual mallows (Lavatera sect. Lavatera) is presented here. The names Lavatera africana, L. biennis, L. grandiflora, L. moschata by Miergues, L. punctata, L. punctata var. maroccana, L. rosea, L. trimestris var. brachypoda, L. trimestris var. trimestris f. colorata, Olbia deflexa, and Stegia lavatera are investigated. Lavatera grandiflora, L. rosea, L. moschata by Miergues, Olbia deflexa, and Stegia lavatera are illegitimate names according to Arts. 52.1, 52.2 or 53.1 of the ICN. The other names are valid and legitimate and are lecto- or neotypified on specimens preserved in the herbaria BM, LE, MAF, MPU, P, and TO. Three species belonging to Lavatera sect. Lavatera are Accepted L. trimestris s.lat., L. maroccana, and L. punctata (= Olbia deflexa, nom. superfl. et illeg. = L. biennis). Three varieties are here recognized for L. trimestris: var. trimestris (≡ Malva rosea, nom. superfl. et illeg. Lavatera grandiflora, nom. superfl. et illeg. Stegia lavatera, nom. superfl. et illeg. = L. africana = L. trimestris var. trimestris f. colorata), var. brachypoda, and var. moschata (a new combination).
A nomenclatural synopsis of the alien species belonging to the tribe Senecioneae currently recorded in Italy (8 species) is presented. The occurrence at the regional level, as well as the level of naturalization and ecological notes for each taxon are provided. A diagnostic key of the non-native Italian species is also given. The names Cineraria petasitis (now Senecio petasitis), Delairea odorata, Eupatorium auriculatum (now Senecio deltoideus), E. fulvum, Mikania ternifolia var. senecioides, Senecio andryaloides, S. angulatus, and S. leucanthemifolius subsp. vernalis are typified on specimens preserved at E, F, P, SBT, and UPS, and on images by Lamarck, Lemaire, Sims, and Waldstein & Kitaibel. The type of the name S. pterophorus, as indicated by Iamonico in 2015, was wrongly reported as holotype and need to be corrected to lectotype according to the Art. 9.9 of ICN. The names Cacalia auriculata, Cacalia fimbrillifera (nom. nov., nom. superfl. et illeg. pro Eupatorium auriculatum), Cacalia scandens by Thunberg, Cineraria crassiflora, Eupatorium scandens by Link (nom. illeg.), Mikania senecioides (nom. illeg.), Senecio auriculatum, and Senecio mikanioides are also investigated and discussed.
Polycnemum verrucosum A. F. Lang is recorded for the first time for Italy (Lazio region, Central Italy). Morphological and ecological characteristics of this species, as compared with the related P. arvense L., are presented and discussed. Taxonomical notes are also provided.
On the basis of floristic surveys, examination of herbarium specimens and review of literature, notes on the taxonomy, morphology, and ecological features are given of Oxybasis chenopodioides and morphologically fairly similar Oxybasis rubra. Their distributions in Italy according to Provinces are discussed and mapped.
Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae s.l.), a species native to the Neotropics, has been found in four localities (Bizerta, Bir Bouregba, Hammamet, and Nabeul) of N. Tunisia. Our discovery represents the first record at national level, and the second one for N. Africa. Morphological characters and ecological data are given. Nomenclatural notes are provided for the name A. diacanthus, which was regarded by some authors as heterotypic synonym of A. spinosus. A neotype is designated in the present paper based on a specimen preserved at LSU.
The typification of the name Bryonia cretica is investigated and discussed. A specimen from the Clifford Herbarium is designated as the lectotype. The morphology of the species, notes on its cytology and geographical distribution and ecological features are also treated.
Manihot is a native genus of the Northern and Southern America with diversity centres in Brazil, Mexico and Guatemala. Some taxa have colonized other continents (except Europe) where they are considered aliens. During recent floristic surveys we found the genus in the Agro Pontino area (Lazio region, Central Italy, Southern Europe). This is the second record in Europe for the genus and the first of M. grahamii for the Eurasian area. At present this taxon is to be considered as naturalized alien species in Agro Pontino (and thus in Italy and Europe). To better clarify the taxonomic and nomenclatural data, the names Janipha loeflingii var. (s) multifida (≡ M. grahamii) and Jatropha carthaginensis (≡ M. carthaginensis) were lectotypified respectively on a specimen from K and an iconography by Jacquin.
As part of ongoing studies of Tunisian Malvaceae, a population of Phymosia umbellata was discovered in Monastir city. It represents the first generic record for the national and continental flora. Morphological characters, as well as ecological data are given. A list of all the accepted names in Phymosia, their synonyms and types is also provided, with nomenclatural notes about some accepted Phymosia species.
Populations of Atriplex canescens var. gigantea were found in Lamta, Bouficha-Enfidha (central Tunisia), and Medenine (southern Tunisia). Literature data concerning the presence of this species in Tunisia are contradictory but now our data confirm its occurrence in the country. On the other hand, this variety is reported in the present paper for the first time both in Tunisia and in North Africa in general. Morphological characters and ecological data are presented, as well as notes about patterns of infraspecific variability of A. canescens. Nomenclatural notes on infraspecific names in A. canescens, as well as on the closely related species A. garrettii, are provided. The types of the names A. canescens var. laciniata, A. canescens var. macilenta, A. garrettii, Obione occidentalis var. angustifolia, and Pterochiton occidentale, that in earlier publications were erroneously considered to be holotypes, are in fact lectotypes (for most of taxa) under Art. 9.10 of the ICN. Isolectotypes were found at CAS (A. canescens var. laciniata and A. canescens var. macilenta), GH (A. canescens var. macilenta), and YU (Atriplex nuttallii).