This paper deals with the application of ecological proposals within the land consolidation project process in Slovakia. Ecological proposals form part of the Local Territorial System of the Ecological Stability project, which is a compulsory material for developing land consolidation projects. The Local Territorial System of Ecological Stability for the cadastral unit of Kocurany village was worked out in 2013. Within the area, 31 localities were selected for the implementation of ecological proposals with a total area of 154.34 ha, namely 3 biocorridors, 2 biocentres, 9 interacting elements, 8 ecostabilising elements and 9 localities with the need of anti-erosion soil cultivation, or delimitation to permanent grasslands. The main task was to analyse the rate of acceptance of the proposed measures. It was found that only 20 localities with a total area of 119.37 ha were accepted into the land consolidation project. In order to improve all the landscape functions, the integration of quality ecological proposals from the Territorial System of Ecological Stability into the land consolidation projects is necessary.
A major worldwide problem, especially from the perspective of preserving biodiversity and ecological stability (ES) of the landscape, is the significant gradual degradation and loss of habitats. In the context of ever-changing global conditions, the preservation of healthy ecosystems and their valuable services as well as the interconnection of patches of existing habitats should be encouraged. In Slovakia, conception of the Territorial System of Ecological Stability (TSES) was developed. Biodiversity conservation can be created by means of an integrated approach to management of the landscape and careful spatial planning respecting TSES. Land Consolidation (LC) projects, of which TSES constitutes a key part, are amongst the real planning and implementation tools in the Slovak Republic. Thus, TSES represents a real tool for implementation of landscape changes in order to strengthen ES and biodiversity of the landscape with regard to the current European trends in biodiversity policy. This article describes a Local Territorial System of Ecological Stability (LTSES) project developed as a part of LCs in the cadastral territory of Hody (Galanta, Slovak Republic). The aim was to create a functional proposal of LTSES with all basic types of proposals to strengthen biodiversity and ES of model territory – proposal for establishing new eco-stabilising elements – groups and strips of non-forest woody vegetation (NFWV), proposal for ecologically optimal land use, proposal for eco-stabilising measures in forest ecosystems and proposal for hydro-ecological measures.
Changes in land cover, including deforestation, can have significant effect on watershed hydrology. We used hydrological model with distributed parameters to evaluate the effect of simulated deforestation on water balance components in the watershed Ulička (97 km2, 84.3% forest cover) located in the eastern Slovakia. Under the current land cover, average interception accounted for 21.1% of the total precipitation during the calibration period 2001-2013. Most of the precipitation (77%) infiltrated into the soil profile, and less than half of this amount percolated into the ground water aquifer. The surface runoff accounted for 1.2% of the total precipitation only, while the interflow accounted for ca. 12%. The largest proportion of the precipitation contributed to the base flow (23%). Watershed`s deforestation induced significant decrease in the interception and evapotranspiration (by 76% and 12%, respectively). At the same time, total runoff, surface runoff, interflow and base flow increased by 20.4, 38.8, 9.0 and 25.5%, respectively. Daily discharge increased by 20%. The deforestation significantly increased peak discharge induced by a simulated extreme precipitation event with the recurrence interval of 100 years. In the deforested watershed, the peak discharge was higher by 58% as compared with the current land cover. Peak discharge occurred in 432 minutes with the current land cover and in 378 minutes with deforestation, after the precipitation event had started. The presented assessment emphasized the risk of adverse effect of excessive deforestation on watershed hydrology. At the same time, the developed model allows testing the effect of other land cover scenarios, and thus supports management in the investigated watershed.