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Open access

Katarina Nikic Djuricic, Marija Draskovic, Andrea Obradovic, Ivan Ristic and Dragana Ignjatovic Ristic


Self-mutilation is self-inflicted and intentional damage done to one’s body or one’s body parts without a conscious suicidal intention. The first case of genital self-mutilation was published in 1846, and the first scientific description of genital self-mutilation was written by Stroch in 1901. Since the first case has been described, there have been a relatively small number of described cases of genital self-mutilation in both genders; there have been an even smaller number of cases of repeated genital self-mutilation and only a few descriptions of repetitive forms of male genital self-mutilation in the literature. The aim of our study is to present difficulties in preventing repeated male genital self-mutilation of a patient with an intellectual disability who was diagnosed and treated for epilepsy and psychosis in early adult life and had a previous history of self-destructive behaviour during childhood. Previous literature does not contain many repeated cases of male genital self-mutilation. After evaluating the contribution of each individual factor in the aetiology of self-mutilation, we concluded that every individual factor is significant in the aetiology of self-mutilation; however, no single factor, as well as all the factors put together, is not enough for prevention of self-mutilation. Our conclusion is that all the presented factors in our research (intellectual disability, epilepsy, psychosis, self-destructive tendencies in childhood) have their place in the aetiology of male genital self-mutilation, but none of them are determining factors. This confirms that it is necessary to conduct further research in the field of aetiology of male genital self-mutilation, which would contribute towards more adequate prevention.

Open access

Tanja Prodovic, Branko Ristic, Nemanja Rancic, Zoran Bukumiric, Stepanovic Zeljko and Dragana Ignjatovic-Ristic



There are several potential risk factors in patients with a hip fracture for a higher rate of mortality that include: comorbid disorders, poor general health, age, male gender, poor mobility prior to injury, type of fracture, poor cognitive status, place of residence. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of potential risk factors for six-month mortality in hip fracture patients.


The study included all patients with a hip fracture older than 65 who had been admitted to the Clinic for orthopaedic surgery during one year. One hundred and ninety-two patients were included in the study.


Six months after admission due to a hip fracture, 48 patients had died (6-month mortality rate was 25%). The deceased were statistically older than the patients who had survived. Univariate regression analysis indicated that six variables had a significant effect on hip fracture patients’ survival: age, mobility prior to the fracture, poor cognitive status, activity of daily living, comorbidities and the place where they had fallen. Multivariate regression modelling showed that the following factors were independently associated with mortality at 6 months post fracture: poor cognitive status, poor mobility prior to the fracture, comorbid disease.


Poor cognitive status appeared to be the strongest mortality predictor. The employment of brief tests for cognitive status evaluation would enable orthopaedists to have good criteria for the choice of treatment for each patient screened.

Open access

Gordana Stanic, Valentina Opancina, Nemanja Rancic, Jelena Jovic and Dragana Ignjatovic-Ristic


Dementia is characterized by a progressive decrease in cognitive functions, and the term includes different etiologies. Cognitive decline includes loss of memory and deterioration in executive functions, such as planning and organizing skills, sufficient to influence social activities. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the attitudes (knowledge, emotions and behaviour) of students at the High Medical College of Professional Studies and nurses towards people suffering from dementia. The study was designed as a qualitative study with the use of a questionnaire. The Dementia Attitudes Scale (DAS) was used in our study. A total of 283 respondents answered the survey: 56.25% were students, and 43.75% were nurses. The internal consistency of the DAS was found to be good with a Cronbach’s α of 0.792. In the overall score for attitudes, a significant difference was found between students (100.47±10.91) and nurses (95.51±16.10). The students had a better score regarding questions describing their behaviour towards these individuals (p<0.001) and emotions for these patients (p<0.001). For knowledge, there was no difference between the two groups of subjects (p=0.901). Regarding the overall score, attitudes of students and nurses towards people with dementia were positive. This research suggested that the training of senior team members who then had dementia expertise was a key component in developing attitudes and improving care practices and outcomes for these patients. Continuous education of all medical staff who have contact with people who suffer from dementia is important.

Open access

Marina Stolic, Dragan Stolic, Darko Hinic and Dragana Ignjatovic-Ristic


There is a growing number of cosmetic medical treatments in the Balkan region. Yet, this trend has not been closely observed in terms of the correlation between procedure characteristics and clients’ sociocultural and psychological characteristics.

The aim of this cross-sectional/retrospective research is to establish the correlation of types of cosmetic procedures with basic sociodemographic characteristics of clients in Serbia. Each of 144 study subjects underwent a cosmetic treatment (320 in total) within the first three months of 2014, while the study was being conducted. The sample included 5 male and 139 female subjects, with the age range of 17-71 (38.87±10.722).

Peaks of interventions have been detected in subjects aged 31-35 and 36-40; more frequently those were individuals with a higher level of education and their motive most commonly was of aesthetic nature. The majority of the subjects (44.44%) underwent only one intervention, while the average number of interventions per subject within the period of three months was 2.21±1.40. Face interventions were considerably higher in number than others, with a rising trend with age. The number of procedures in the area of the abdomen, breasts and thighs, rose with the increase of a body mass index. The most popular treatments included removal of stretch marks and fillers, mesotherapy and botulinum toxin.

Due to ever-growing sociocultural pressure and a modern concept of life, women often decide on cosmetic therapy at the first sign of ageing and hormonal changes, with a downward age trend especially with respect to minimally invasive procedures, as well as the most visible body parts, the face in the first place.

Open access

Dragana Ignjatovic-Ristic, Ana Solujic, Andrea Obradovic, Katarina Nikic-Djuricic, Marija Draskovic, Jelena Jovic, Nemanja Rancic, Milena Jovicic and Ivan Ristic


Research over the past twenty years has shown that the attitudes of health care workers and students towards people who are suffering from schizophrenia have become more negative. The aim of our study was to investigate the attitudes of medical and pharmacy students towards patients with schizophrenia and explore the differences in attitudes between study groups and students in different years. Materials and methods: Second- and fifth-year medical and pharmacy students from the Faculty of Medical Sciences at the University of Kragujevac were included in an observational, prospective, cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 113 students from the pharmacy and medical schools who were chosen via random sampling. The students completed a two-part questionnaire. Th e first part contained questions about sociodemographic characteristics, whereas the second part was a translated version of the Mental Illness: Clinician’s Attitudes (MICA) v4 scale. Results: There is a statistically significant difference (р<0.05) in the attitudes towards people with schizophrenia between second- and fifth-year medical and pharmacy students (with lower scores in both groups in fifth-year students). Of the total number of students who had lower summed scores on the Likert scale, 51.3% had previously finished medical high school, whereas 28.3% had previously finished regular high school. Conclusion: Our results showed a statistically significant difference in attitudes towards people with schizophrenia between second- and fifth-year students as well as a difference related to previous high school education. This stresses the importance of levels of knowledge about schizophrenia to reducing the stigmatization of patients who suffer from this disorder.