Although the fight against the use of doping in sport has been going on for almost 90 years, its effects have become tangible in the last 45 years only, thanks to the use of valid and sensitive analytical methods. Historically, extensive international scientific cooperation and technological progress have laid down the basis for the development of high quality doping control laboratories worldwide. New biotechnology products are constantly being discovered and are made available on the doping market, so that anti-doping approaches must be raised to a higher level, and analytical methods must be constantly improved and refined, since it has bacome obvious that to some extent they lag behind new sophisticated doping agents. However, all the methods must first be scientifically proven and tested in order to be adequately used against doping in sport. If the technology and systematic use of the latest scientific anti-doping knowledge continue to develop and advance, it will greatly contribute to the development of analytical methods.
Resistance training for children and adolescents, programmed according to individual needs and abilities and adequately implemented, is recommended by leading professional associations in the field of sports medicine, sport sciences and pediatrics. The most commonly used loads during training, with the aim of developing strength and power, are free weights and resistance exercise equipment that can be of standard sizes, but also specially designed for younger age groups, body weight exercises, and exercises with medicine balls and elastic bands. In addition to the positive influence on muscle strength and endurance, as well as a potential increase in the performance of certain motor tasks, regular resistance training can also result in improving body composition, increasing bone mineral density, improvement of cardio-respiratory endurance, as well as have a positive impact on the psycho-social status of children and adolescents. Due to the lack of clear evidence to suggest muscle hypertrophy in children, an increase in muscle strength is mainly attributed to neurological adaptations, including improved coordination, speed and the number of activated motor units. In designing a resistance training program for children and adolescents, one should respect the basic principles of training, pertaining to adults as well, but it must be borne in mind that neither children nor adolescents are “little adults”, and that one should not simply copy the training of adults or athletes.
Regular and clear instructions with constant supervision in resistance training for children and adolescents can have a positive impact on overall health, and can lead to the creation of positive habit acquisition to regularly perform training, and a healthy lifestyle. Current results and findings obtained from well-organized and monitored investigations, on a sample of children or adolescents, indicated a very low risk of injury when one meets all the training recommendations for a particular age group.
Marko Aleksandrović, Dragan Radovanović, Tomislav Okičić, Dejan Madić and Georgi Georgiev
Functional Abilities as a Predictor of Specific Motor Skills of Young Water Polo Players
The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of functional abilities on specificmotor skills. A total number of 92 male water polo players (age 12±0.5 years, body height 156.96±22.3 cm, body weight 51.02±33.18 kg) with at least two years' experience, were enrolled in the study. The investigation protocol consisted of standardized anthropometric measurements, estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, determination of the lung function values, specific swim tests and swim tests with a ball. The factor analysis was used for the estimation of the structure of specific motor skills. The influence of functional abilities on specific motor skills was estimated by regression analysis. Out of 15 correlations in total between the variables of space of functional abilities of water polo players, 6 were significant at the level of 95% (between the variables of aerobic power and lung function) and all of the correlations (15) between the variables of specific motor skills in water polo players were significant at the 99% level. Only one principal component, the General factor of specific motor skills in water polo (GFSWP) was obtained by way of factorization of the tests of specific motor skills, so the GFSWP represents the latent space of specific motor skills as a criterion. The regression analysis showed that functional abilities (as group predictors) (p= 0.00) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (as a separate variable) have a significant influence on GFSWP (the criterion). The results of the study pointed out the impact of functional abilities on specific motor skills of selected young water polo players. This may be important for the selection and effective coaching in the early period of training and can affect the development of more appropriate and specific training programmes for optimal physical fitness preparation in young water polo players.
Nenad Ponorac, Nela Rašeta, Dragan Radovanović, Amela Matavulj and Jelena Popadić-Gaćeša
Bone Metabolism Markers in Sportswomen with Menstrual Cycle Dysfunctions
It is a well known fact that sportswomen with irregular menstrual cycle are exposed to the risk of diminished bone mineral density, and consequentially osteoporosis may appear. Monitoring of the levels of biochemical markers of bone metabolism enables understanding of the dynamic changes during the bone remodeling process. The objectives of the conducted research were to determine the prevalence of menstrual dysfunctions in a sports-women sample and a control group, and also to determine the levels of bone metabolism markers in groups of women with menstrual dysfunctions. The women (n=117) were separated into two groups, the experimental group (S) (n=84) comprised of three subgroups of sports women (34 women who play ball game sports, 27 athletes and 23 sport dancers) and the control group (C) (n=34). To establish the menstrual profile and dysfunction of the menstrual cycle, we used a very detailed questionnaire. The level of mid-fragment osteocalcin (N-MID osteocalcin) as a marker of bone formation was deter mined, as well as β-Cross Laps (β-CTx-bone resorption marker) via the electro luminescent immunochemistry method on an Elecsys 1010 automated machine. Primary amenorrhea was found in 7 (8.33%) and oligomenorrhea in 11 (13.09%) sportswomen, which was statistically a much higher incidence (p<0.05) than in the control group (0/34). Values of bone metabolism markers showed a statistically significant difference in the level of the bone resorption marker β-CrossLaps between the groups of amenorrheic and oligomenorrheic sportswomen in comparison to the eumenorrheic women, both sportswomen and those in the control group. Accelerated resorption was accompanied with accelerated bone formation. Menstrual dysfunctions were statistically more present in the sports-women group than in the control group and were accompanied with accelerated bone metabolism from the point of view of the increase of bone metabolism markers level.
Miodrag Kocić, Ivana Bojić, Marko Aleksandrović, Aleksandar Ignjatović and Dragan Radovanović
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an adapted basketball training program on the cardiorespiratory fitness and sport skills performance of adolescents with mental retardation (MR). Fifty adolescents with mild MR who participated in this study were divided in two groups. Experimental group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.7 ± 0.9 years) performed the adapted training program, four times per week during eight weeks. A control group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.9 ± 0.8 years) followed ordinary physical education classes and continued with their normal lifestyle. Exercise testing included the six-minute walk test (6MWT), monitoring of heart rate frequency and sport skills performance test battery.
Results showed a significant difference between groups pre- and post-treatment in 6MWT distance. The experimental group experienced a 10% increase in covered distance pre- to post-testing (p < 0.05), whereas controls had no significant changes in the same period. Conducted adapted training also resulted in significant improvement in examined sport skills performance. However, this kind and duration of experimental procedure did not result in significant differences in anthropometric variables and heart rate frequency. This study demonstrated that adapted basketball training is an adequate stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and sport skills performance of adolescents with mild MR. The advantage of this type of adaptive training program is that it does not require a large financial input, but only the engagement of a qualified and dedicated physical education professor.
Sanja Kocic, Dragan Vasiljevic, Snezana Radovanovic, Svetlana Radevic, Ivana Simic Vukomanovic and Natasa Mihailovic
Almost all countries in the world keep some form of hospital discharge report (HDR). Although there are many variations, every report contains such data as patient demographics, the main cause of hospitalization, comorbidities, the length of stay in hospital and outcome. The advantages of using data obtained from HDRs are numerous: The data from HDRs are already collected in a designated centre and thus easily available and relatively cheap; HDRs contain information for many previous years; they are sometimes more reliable than data obtained through any other method; and finally, they provide a large and representative database. HDRs databases can be connected with other databases using a unified patient identification number. The limitations of using data obtained through HDRs are as follows: inconsistencies in defining and coding diagnoses and applied procedures, common underestimations of comorbidity, limited possible applications in specific studies and partial coverage of inpatient institutions. The prediction that in the future, a growing number of diagnostic and treatment procedures will be performed on an outpatient basis will also limit the use of HDRs. When electronic recordkeeping becomes a practice, we may assume that these data will no longer be needed. There is no perfect model for collection and processing data regarding hospitalized patients. HDRs, with their advantages and disadvantages, currently represent the best way to perceive the size, type, quality and efficiency of the health care services provided to patients at the secondary and tertiary level.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Serbia and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. This paper is based on data from a national health survey of the population of Serbia in 2013 (no data for Kosovo and Metohija), conducted by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia. For the purposes of this study, data on households and individuals over 15 years of age were used; thus, the final sample for analysis included 858 patients (aged 15 to 19 years). Researchers used demographic characteristics (age, gender, type of home, region) and socio-economic characteristics (income per household member, the index of well-being, self-assessment of health, cigarette smoking, tendency towards psychological and physical violence) as the independent variables. A χ2 test was applied to test the differences in the frequencies of categorical variables. The correlations between alcohol consumption, as the dependent variable, and the independent variables (mentioned above) were tested by logistic regression. All results less than or equal to 5% probability (p ≤ 0.05) were considered statistically significant. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Serbia is 51.6%. Alcohol consumption is significantly associated with sex, type of home and the index of well-being (p < 0.05). The prevalence of alcohol consumption is higher in males (57.1%), in adolescents who come from urban areas (59.3%) and in adolescents who, according to the index of well-being, belong to the wealthiest financial category (23.9%).
Ana Lukovic, Milos Arsenijevic, Slobodan Milisavljevic, Dragan Stojkovic, Stanko Mrvic and Dragce Radovanovic
Cystic lesions of the mediastinum are uncommon, comprising 12% to 18% of all primary mediastinal tumors and unless they attain a large size and cause compressive symptoms, these tumors are generally asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally upon radiologic investigation of some other condition. We present in this paper a case of cystic lesions of the mediastinum in a 70-year-old male patient who underwent a surgery for mediastinal mass removal. Histopathology report had shown it was the case of mature cystic teratoma of anterior mediastinum. Based on a review of the literature, as well as our experience, we conclude that best treatment for cystic lesions of anterior mediastinum is complete surgical resection if possible.
Lidija Dimitrijević, Marko Aleksandrović, Dejan Madić, Tomislav Okičić, Dragan Radovanović and Daniel Daly
The Effect of Aquatic Intervention on the Gross Motor Function and Aquatic Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (followup), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.
The aim of the work is to assess vulnerability degree of reproductive health in adolescent population in Serbia by analyzing their sexual behavior. The paper is based on data from a National health survey of the population in Serbia in 2013 (without Kosovo and Metohija region), conducted by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia. For the purposes of this study, the data used are referred to households and population of age 15 and over, so that the final number for analysis is a sample of 1722 respondents aged 15-24. The study included demographic characteristics of respondents (age, gender, settlement type, region) and the characteristics of reproductive health: sexual behavior, use of contraceptive protection, knowledge and attitudes towards HIV, protection of reproductive health. χ2 test was applied for testing differences in frequency of categorical variables. All results with a probability that equals to or is less than 5% (p≤0.05) are considered statistically significant. Among the respondents, there were more than half (53.5%) of sexually active adolescents. The highest percentage of them- 16.6% responded that they had first sexual intercourse at the age of 17. 53.4% of adolescents had sexual intercourse with one partner, 26.4% of respondents had sexual intercourse with two or more partners. The most commonly used contraceptive method was interrupted intercourse (coitus interruptus) with 34.7% of respondents.