Dragan Petrović, Dijana Duronjić and Dragan Mandić
We are witnessing that the labor market indicators of the Republic of Srpska have been deteriorating for years. Unemployment rates are up to three times higher than the already high European average, with no prospect of changing the situation in the near future. Deterioration in the labor market with respect to people younger than 30 years of age bears particular significance. There is a notable gap between the reduction of unemployment rate and the increase of employed people from this population group. The question is: Where (and whether) are the young (educated) people disappearing from the labor market of the Republic of Srpska? The authors provide an analysis of the main indicators of the Republic of Srpska’slabor market, with the aim of recognizing the main tendencies and problems existing at the market, as well as the need to define adequate measures for their resolution.
Economic interconnection among the European countries influenced the birth of a single economic space with a common monetary policy. In addition, the abolition of the gold standard represented an important external factor that followed the same path. In parallel with these processes, the conditions were created for developing a Eurocurrency market which favoured financial integration of Europe, as well as the creation of a single European currency. In accordance with such economic flows, Eurocurrency market emerged as a distinguished international financial market, crucial for the development of international banking. Thus, business entities were allowed to access the capital which represents the transfer of the international accumulation of the exporting country onto the European capital market, thereby resulting in more efficient financing of the member states. Thanks to similar economic effects, these processes of European monetary integrations have become imperative to other countries in the region.
Small and medium enterprises comprise an optimal unity with large enterprises. Such approach provides an effective long-term economic structure. In the EU, the number of employees and added value of SMEs grew until 2008, followed by a stagnant trend during the crisis in the EU. As early as 2010, the added value started recovering, while a number of companies and employees stagnated. As for BiH, SMEs revenues dropped in the period from 2008 to 2009, followed by their recovery and growth, while the investments maintained constant decline to the end of the observed period. Macroeconomic indicators do not indicate a radical change of trends from 2008 to 2011. In that period, the EU recorded significant oscillations. Correlation analysis for BiH has shown an interconnection between GDP and industrial production, with SMEs revenues. The ratio of investments and SMEs revenues does not indicate the existence of a correlation. The economic crisis and instability of BiH affect the poor economic situation. BiH underutilizes EU funds for SME development. The EU Programme for SMEs and job creation has failed to demonstrate significant results in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Balkan region. The economic crisis and instability affect the economic situation in BiH. Stimulus of creating new and expansion of existing SMEs is a prerequisite for economic recovery of the country in times of crisis and in the periods of economic prosperity.
This paper discusses issues of methodological basis of contemporary economic theory, from the perspective of rival research orientations and their conceptual sensitization to the role and impacts of institutional structures. In this regard, the paper presents methodological individualism, research support of economic orthodoxy, based on a consistent interpretation of all social phenomena as outcomes of individual choice. It is shown that even in its most rigid versions this approach has to take to a certain degree into account the social interactions that go beyond the individualist framework. The opposing research orientation, methodological holism, gives explanatory primacy to (different) social collective entities and structures, characteristics of which are autonomous in nature and essential for the explanation of the individual as an entity of a lower order, whose individual properties are not significant. Both approaches are subjected to reductionist tendencies - whether explanations of the socioeconomic reality are individual or culturally over-determined. Integrating institutions in consideration of socioeconomic reality has repercussions on the mentioned methodological dichotomy, given that in conceptual terms it has the potential to bridge the extremely individualistic or collectivist methodological positions. Awareness of the impact of institutions on the socioeconomic reality has produced distinctive methodological orientations. Institutional individualism considers institutions as exogenous mechanism whose explanation is at the service of shedding light on the behaviour of the individuals as the main actors of social dynamics, and in that sense this approach can be considered as a milder variant of methodological individualism. The institutionalist extension of methodological holism, methodological institutionalism, understands individual acting as a product of an integrated institutional framework, whose dynamics takes place independently of the individuals, according to its own regularities. Some kind of balance between the aforementioned orientations is offered by methodological systemism, which affirms the dual nature of the actors of social dynamics - as both product of units of a lower order, but also as entities with autonomous, emergent properties. The contextualisation of relations between institutions and individuals in accordance with a system perspective may be a suitable way, with more tuned reality, theoretical valuation and overcoming differences between opponent methodological traditions.
Mirjana A. Janicijevic-Petrovic, Marko Petrovic, Dragan Vujic, Katarina Janicijevic and Andrijana Popovic
Aim: To evaluate success rate (efficacy, safety) in treatment of post-chemical injuries and corneal defects using autologous serum eye drops.
Material and Methods: Authors reviewed 93 patients (116 eyes) hospitalized in Clinic of ophthalmology from 2010 to 2013, who had post-causoma corneal defects that were nonresponsive to conventional treatment and were treated with serum therapy. Authors correlated time of epithelialization of defects with rate of epithelial healing.
Results: Authors investigated 93 patients (52 males, 41 females; aged 18 - 74) for treatment of corneal defects. Application of autologous serum therapy 56 (48.28%) of 116 eyes was healed in an average time of 4 weeks. Among 116 eyes, epithelial defects healed in 4 (3.45%) within 1 week, in additional 17 (14.65%) in 1-2 weeks, totalling 31 (26.72%) within 3 weeks. Five eyes (4.31%) completely healed at 5 week; three eyes (2.59%) had subsequent healing of epithelial defect at 6 week; 56 eyes completely healed within one month, and the remaining eight eyes healed within 1.5 month.
Conclusion: Using serum therapy, it was managed to reduce time of healing from eleven weeks, which were necessary just couple years ago (before 2010) to four (maximum six) weeks to complete healing which are necessary today.
Natasa Janjic, Darko Kapor, Dragan Doder, Aleksandar Petrovic and Radoslava Doder
This paper introduces an equation for determining instantaneous and final velocity of a sprinter in a 100 m run completed with a wind resistance ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 m/s. The validity of the equation was verified using the data of three world class sprinters: Carl Lewis, Maurice Green, and Usain Bolt. For the given constant wind velocity with the values + 0.9 and + 1.1 m/s, the wind contribution to the change of sprinter velocity was the same for the maximum as well as for the final velocity. This study assessed how the effect of the wind velocity influenced the change of sprinting velocity. The analysis led to the conclusion that the official limit of safely neglecting the wind influence could be chosen as 1 m/s instead of 2 m/s, if the velocity were presented using three, instead of two decimal digits. This implies that wind velocity should be rounded off to two decimal places instead of the present practice of one decimal place. In particular, the results indicated that the influence of wind on the change of sprinting velocity in the range of up to 2 m/s and was of order of magnitude of 10-3 m/s. This proves that the IAAF Competition Rules correctly neglect the influence of the wind with regard to such velocities. However, for the wind velocity over 2 m/s, the wind influence is of order 10-2 m/s and cannot be neglected.
Prevalence of cognitive disorders is high in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is used for detecting and evaluation of cognitive disorder degree in this patient population. In examined patient population, only 5 (12.5%) of them had normal cognitive function (MoCA ≥26). Mild cognitive impairment (MoCA 18-26) was found in 65.9% (29) patients, while moderate cognitive disorder (MoCA 10-17) was detected in 6 (21.6%) patients. Major cognitive disorder wasn’t detected in examined population. Statistically signifi cant correlation was not established between laboratory parameters and overall MoCA score. Statistically signifi cant correlation, however, was established between MoCA item that evaluates space and time orientation and intermediate secondary hyperparathyroidism and space and time orientation and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis and silent ischemia of the brain are increasing risk of appearance of cognitive disorders in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Prevalence of cognitive disorders is high in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is used for detecting and evaluation of cognitive disorder degree in this patient population. In examined patient population, only 5 (12.5%) of them had normal cognitive function (MoCA ≥26). Mild cognitive impairment (MoCA 18-26) was found in 65.9% (29) patients, while moderate cognitive disorder (MoCA 10-17) was detected in 6 (21.6%) patients. Major cognitive disorder wasn’t detected in examined population. Statistically significant correlation was not established between laboratory parameters and overall MoCA score. Statistically significant correlation, however, was established between MoCA item that evaluates space and time orientation and intermediate secondary hyperparathyroidism and space and time orientation and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis and silent ischemia of the brain are increasing risk of appearance of cognitive disorders in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Dragan Zdravković, Jovana Kostić, Jelena Radović, Aleksandar Kostić, Milena Potić Floranović, Ana Ristić Petrović, Aleksandra Ignjatović, Aleksandar Tasić, Nataša Miladinović Tasić and Suzana Otašević
The first line of defence in parasitic infection is the innate immune system. On the other hand, adaptive immune system posseses numerous mechanisams of hummoral and cellular immunity.
Cellular immunity in a helminth infection is characterised by Th2 immune response. Considering the fact that the aim of a parasite is not to kill its host, the majority of parasites are highly addapted to the life inside the host, and succesefully avoid or limit its deffences. A special signifficance of the parasite as a potential pathogen is its possibility to escape immunity. Numerous helminths are releasing different substances that are acting as lymphocyte suppressors and macrophage inactivators and they are capable of destroying antibodies. They have a possibility of camouflage, sequestration and surface shell peeling with the aim to avoid immune response. Latest research in the field of immunology has revealed the significance of CD40 co-stimumlating protein of antigen presenting cells in the immune response to parasitic infection.
Immune response in the course of parasitic infestion is important in pathogenesis of helminthioses.
Ivan Praznik, Marko Spasić, Ivan Radosavljević, Bojan Stojanović, Dragan Čanović, Dragče Radovanović, Zorica Savović, Radiša Vojinović, Živan Babić, Nela Đonović, Tanja Luković, Predrag Lazarević, Nataša Đorđević, Irena Kostić, Ivana Jelić, Jelena Petrović, Stefan Stojanović, Milena Jurišević, Iva Grubor, Ljiljana Nikolić, Ksenija Vučićević, Viktorija Artinović, Anđela Milojević, Marina Kostić, Srđjan Stefanović and Slobodan Janković
The aim of the paper was to determine the factors related to the initial therapy that may contribute to death from severe necrotizing acute pancreatitis and to analyze their clinical importance as well as possible additive effects.
A retrospective case-control study included all adult patients treated for severe necrotizing acute pancreatitis in the Clinical Center of Kragujevac, Serbia, during the five-year period (2006-2010.). The cases (n = 41) were patients who died, while the controls (n = 69) were participants who survived. In order to estimate the relationship between potential risk factors and observed outcome, crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in logistic regression models.
Significant association with observed outcome was shown for the use of gelatin and/or hydroxyethyl starch (adjusted OR 12.555; 95 % CI 1.150-137.005), use of albumin (adjusted OR 27.973; 95 % CI 1.741-449.373), use of octreotide (adjusted OR 16.069; 95 % CI 1.072-240.821) and avoiding of enteral feeding (adjusted OR 3.933; 95 % CI 1.118-13.829), while the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had protective role (adjusted OR 0.057; 95 % CI 0.004-0.805).
The risk of death in patients with predicted severe necrotizing acute pancreatitis could be reduced with avoidance of treatment with colloid solutions, albumin and octreotide, as well as with an early introduction of oral/enteral nutrition and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.