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  • Author: Dragan Danilovski x
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We report a 10 days old newborn with brachycephaly, midfacial hypoplasia, syndactyly and broad distal phalanx of thumb and big toe. At the 20th gestational weeks an enlargement of the left cerebral ventricle and malformation of the fingers of the hands and toes were noticed on a regular ultrasound examination. The aforementioned malformations were observed at birth and at the age of 11 months. The large fontal was closed; the small one was palpable at the tip of the finger. Brachycephaly was evident with high full forehead, flat occiput, and irregular craniosynostosis especially at the coronal suture. Cutaneous syndactyly was present at both hands (fingers II-V), with almost complete fusion of the second, third and fourth fingers. Distal phalanges of the thumbs were broad as well as distal hallux. There was cutaneous syndactyly of the feet. Mental development at the age of 11 months was normal.

Apert syndrome is a sporadic disorder. Rarely, inheritance is autosomal dominant. Appropriate management includes surgical treatment of the syndactylies, follow up of the eventual airway compromise and hearing difficulties. This is a report of a patient identified as a newborn.


Neonatal hypoglycemia (HG) can cause neurologic damage, epilepsy, mental retardation, behavioral and personality disorders and death. The longest the HG lasts and the greatest the glucose nadir the consequences are more pronounced.

Comorbidities are rather important in development of neurological damage. Hypoxemia and ischemia can cause permanent brain damage. Small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), intrauterine growth restriction, gestational age bellow the 37th week, low Apgar score, sepsis, children whose mothers have toxemia, diabetes or chorioamnionitis are all newborns with increased HG risk.

Comparing 34 patients with NH and 34 children without NH with similar GA, BW, BL, the Apgar score, we found statistically significant differences in motor and mental development using the Griffith scale. Children with neonatal HG fared significantly worse than those without neonatal HG. Therefore, CBG measurements and early recognition of neonatal HG is of significant importance in preventing motor and mental damage in children. A larger and well-balanced cohort of patients followed for a longer period is also necessary to clarify and discern in detail the importance of neonatal HG and other perinatal factors in neurodevelopmental damage.


Background and aims: Severe neonatal hypoglycemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, personality disorders, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of children with hypoglycemia in a random population of newborns.

Patients, methods and results: We investigated 84 patients (M:F=35:48) born at the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Skopje (hospitalized in the NICU) who were found to have hypoglycemia. In total 89.25% of the babies were premature. The mean birth weight was 1795.95 +/596.08 grams, the mean birth length was 41.92+/- 4.62 cm, while the mean gestational age was 33.05±3.19 weeks. 32 children (38.08%) were very low birth weight (<1500g), 38 (45.22%) were low birth weight (1500-2500g), while there were 8 children (9.52%) appropriate for age BW and no high BW for age patients (>4000 g).

HG duration was 2.42+/-2.41 hours. In the group as a whole, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was found in 3 children (3.57%), infections in 22 (26.18%), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in 9 patients (10.62%), intracranial haemorrhage in 2 patients (2.38%). There were no inborn errors of metabolism. There were two deaths (2.38%).

Conclusion: Neonatal HG is a significant factor in the overall neonatal mortality. HG can also cause severe invalidity. We found that infections, LBW and low gestational age were most commonly associated with neonatal HG. However the Spearman test showed weak direct correlation, without statistical significance. Neonatal HG requires complex and team interaction of prenatal and postnatal approaches to reduce the incidence of seizures, their consequences and the overall mortality. Special consideration is to be taken in measures that avoid neonatal infections, HIE, LBW and low gestational age. Further studies on a larger population are needed to fully understand and prevent the phenomenon of HG in newborns.


Wildervanck syndrome (WS) combines features of Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), sixth nerve palsy, and deafness. This is a case of a 23 year old woman, diagnosed with KFS (a triad of short neck, low posterior hairline and restricted neck movements) at the age of 20 days. The manifestations of the WS in this patient are severe: she has torticollis, and an extremely severe scoliosis. In addition, she is short (-3 SD; parental target height + 0.8SD) and has mixed sensorineural and conductive deafness. She also has ptosis, strabismus and a high myopia. Radiologically, there are multiple coalitions of cervical vertebrae. Intelligence is unaffected (IQ 95), but deafness, strabismus and high myopia forced her early out of school. Karyotype is 46, XX. In brief, this is a patient with severe WS and additional anomalies. Short and/or reduced parental target height is a part of WS.


Neonatal hypoglycemia (NH) is one of the most common abnormalities encountered in the newborn. Maintaining glucose homeostasis is one of the important physiological events during fetal-to-neonatal transition. Transient low blood glucose concentrations are frequently encountered in the majority of healthy newborns and are the reflections of normal metabolic adaptation processes. Nevertheless, there is a great concern that prolonged or recurrent low blood glucose levels may result in long-term neurological and developmental consequences.

Strikingly, it was demonstrated that the incidence and timing of low glucose concentrations in the groups most at risk for asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia, did not find association between repetitive low glucose concentrations and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. On the contrary, NH due to hyperinsulinism is strongly associated with brain injury.

Fundamental issue of great professional controversy is concerning the best manner to manage asymptomatic newborns NH. Both, overtreating NH and undertreating NH are poles with significant potential disadvantages.

Therefore, NH is one of the most important issues in the day-to-day practice. This article appraises the critical questions of definition (widely accepted blood glucose concentration: < 2.6 mmol/l or 47 mg/dl), follow-up ad management of NH.


Multiple congenital anomalies and craniofacial dysmorphism are characterizing the so-called Emanuel or supernumerary der(22)t(11;22) syndrome (OMIM609029). Mental and developmental retardation are major clinical features. The der(22) may arise from a parental balanced t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) or can be created de novo.

Here we present a 2 years old boy with normal prenatal history, cyanotic at delivery and with ear anomalies, a preauricular tag, high-arched palate and micrognathia. There were neither microcephaly, nor heart or kidney defects. Psychological and motor testing at the age of 2 years confirmed significant mental and developmental delay. In addition, the child had seizures and an abnormal electroencephalogram. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a karyotype 47,XY,+der(22)t(11;22)(q23;q11.2). As parents refused further tests it could not be determined if the der(22) arose de novo or was parentally derived.

Overall the present report should alert physician to offer cytogenetic and/or molecular diagnostics in comparable cases.


Aim: Severe neonatal hypoglycaemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. The aim was to assess the frequency and severity of HG in a population of newborns.

Patients and methods: We investigated 739 patients with neonatal hypoglycaemia (HG) (M:F=370:369) born at the University Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetritics in Skopje in the period 2014-2016 and treated at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). 1416 babies were treated in the same period in NICU, and HG was observed in 52.18%. The birth weight was dominated by children with low birth weight: very low birth weight (VLBW)(<1500g) 253 children, (34,23%), low birth weight (1500-2500g) 402 (54.39%), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) 78(10.55%), and high birth weight (>4000g) 6 babies (0.81%). The gestational age was also dominated by children with low gestational age: gestational week (GW) 20-25 four children (0.54%), 26-30 GW 133 babies (17.99%), 31-35 GW472 (63.87%), and 36-40 GW130 neonates (17.59 %).

241 mothers (32.61%) have had an infection during pregnancy, 82 preeclampsia or eclampsia (11.09%), 20 diabetes mellitus (2.70%), 78 placental situations (placenta previa, abruption) (10.55%). In this study 47 babies (6.35%) with HG and co-morbidities died.

There was a significant positive correlation between HG birth weight (p<0.01), gestational age (p<0.05), and the lowest Apgar score (p<0.01). Neonatal deaths were significantly correlated with GA (р>0,01), co-morbidities of the mothers (р>0,05) but not with the birth weight (р>0,05). In contrast, a significant positive correlation was found between convulsions and body weight (р<0.05). The lowest Apgar score was positively correlated with the gestational age (0.01), but not with the birth weight (0.05).

Conclusion: Low birth weight, low gestational age, maternal risk factors, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and neonatal infections are associated with HG and are a significant factor in overall neonatal mortality. Those results indicate that diminishing the frequency of the neonatal HG and the rates of neonatal mortality requires complex interaction of prenatal and postnatal interventions.


Obesity and excess weight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. Childhood obesity is also widespread in Macedonia. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and carbohydrate intolerance are found in significant numbers. Parents and grandparents are often obese. Some of the children are either dysmorphic, or slightly retarded. We have already described patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome or WAGR syndrome. A genetic screening for mutations in monogenic obesity in children with early, rapid-onset or severe obesity, severe hyperphagia, hypogonadism, intestinal dysfunction, hypopigmentation of hair and skin, postprandial hypoglycaemia, diabetes insipidus, abnormal leptin level and coexistence of lean and obese siblings in the family discovers many genetic forms of obesity. There are about 30 monogenic forms of obesity. In addition, obesity is different in ethnic groups, and the types of monogenic obesity differ. In brief, an increasing number of genes and genetic mechanisms in children continue to be discovered. This sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms of obesity and potentially gives a target for new forms of treatment.