This study is to investigate the role of the coating of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on wool fibers against high-intensity ultraviolet B (UVB), ultraviolet A (UVA), and visible light irradiation. The properties of tensile and yellowness and whiteness indices of irradiated TiO2-coated wool fibers are measured. The changes of TiO2-coated wool fibers in optical property, thermal stability, surface morphology, composition, molecular structure, crystallinity, and orientation degree are characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Experimental results show that the tensile properties of anatase TiO2-coated wool fibers can be degraded under the high-intensity UVB, UVA, and visible light irradiation for a certain time, resulting in the loss of the postyield region of stress–strain curve for wool fibers. The coating of TiO2 nanoparticles makes a certain contribution to the tensile property, yellowness and whiteness indices, thermal stability, and surface morphology of wool fibers against high-intensity UVB, UVA, and visible light irradiation. The high-intensity UVB, UVA, and visible light can result in the photo-oxidation deterioration of the secondary structure of TiO2-coated wool fibers to a more or less degree. Meanwhile, the crystallinity and orientation degree of TiO2 coated wool fibers decrease too.
To investigate the necessary eligibility criteria for prescriptive authority for midwives, gather suggestions from experts on training content for prescriptive authority for midwives, and explore the scope of practice of their prescriptive authority in certain circumstances. The results of this study could serve as a reference for the development of policies on prescriptive authority for midwives.
Based on a literature search and semistructured interviews, a modified Delphi method was first used to conduct 2 rounds of expert consultation on eligibility criteria and training content for prescriptive authority for midwives. This stage included nursing experts () and medical experts () engaged in midwifery in many tertiary Grade A hospitals in China. Subsequently, consultation on the scope of practice of prescriptive authority for midwives was conducted with nursing experts () and medical experts () engaged in midwifery in many tertiary Grade A hospitals in China. The suggestions from the experts were analyzed using statistical methods to confirm the eligibility criteria for prescriptive authority, training content, circumstances, scope of practice for prescriptive authority, and the prescription forms.
Among the consulted experts, 70.59% (the highest acceptance rate) considered an undergraduate degree to be the minimum educational requirement for midwives to be eligible for prescriptive authority, 85.29% (the highest acceptance rate) considered the supervisor nurse to be the minimum technical position experience necessary for midwives to be eligible for having prescriptive authority, and 50% (the highest acceptance rate) considered 5 years to be the minimum number of years of experience in the specialty for midwives to be eligible for prescriptive authority. The applicants should at least be practicing at Grade C hospitals, which was the consensus among 91.18% of the consulted experts. Among the consulted experts, 100%, 100%, 97.06%, 94.12%, and 94.12% agreed that the applicants should have knowledge in pharmacology, laws and ethics, nursing, diagnostics, and midwifery, respectively. The consulted experts confirmed 22 related course topics and identified 6 specific circumstances in which the midwives could partially practice prescriptive authority, including uterine atony, excessive uterine contraction, postpartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of fetal membranes, normal labor, and neonatal asphyxia. Under these 6 circumstances, the consulted experts commonly agreed that there were 20 medication prescriptions and 13 auxiliary examination prescriptions that could be prescribed by midwives. Of these prescriptions, 51.5% were independent prescriptions, 30.3% were protocol prescriptions, and the remaining 18.2% were both independent and protocol prescriptions.
Midwives who have an undergraduate degree, supervisor nurse position, and 5 years of practice in Grade C hospitals are considered eligible to apply for prescriptive authority. Partial prescriptive authority could be granted after regulated training in fundamental theories and practices, which could improve the independence and professionalism of midwifery.
This paper aims to study the effect of reinforcement configuration (steel fibre and rebar) on the mechanical performance of composite slabs of the same total steel contents. We manufactured four pieces of fullscale multi-ribbed composite prefabricated slabs with different reinforcement configurations by using steel fibrereinforced concrete, foam concrete, and normal concrete. The multi-ribbed composite prefabricated slab has many excellent properties, such as light weight, good thermal and sound insulation. Thus, it can be applied to fabricated structures. In addition, the composite prefabricated slabs with the same total steel contents but with different reinforcement configurations were studied under the same static load, and many technical indicators such as crack resistance capacity, yield load, ultimate load capacity, maximum deflection, destructive pattern, and stress of steel rebar were obtained. Results indicate reinforcement configuration has a significant effect on the mechanical performance of composite prefabricated slabs with the same total steel contents, and composite prefabricated slabs reinforced with longitudinal rebar and steel fibre (volume fraction is 1.5%) have the best mechanical performance and ductility.