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  • Author: Dorota Ozga x
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Providing high quality medical services for patients from a different cultural background is only possible when the therapeutic team members prove some basic cultural competence. In response to community demand the Multicultural Care in European Intensive Care Units (MICE-ICU) project has been developed within the ERASMUS+ program. The Polish Association of Anaesthesiology and ICU Nurses is the beneficiary of the MICE-ICU program and the coordinator of the project. The main goal of the project is to prepare report regarding ICU nurses cultural competences and educational needs, and according to that report, to prepare online course for ICU nurses regarding multicultural nursing care.


Introduction. Research demonstrates that nursing documentation is a condition for the continuity of patient care and for their safety. The objective of the article is to present the existing knowledge on anaesthesiology nursing documentation and to specify its essential elements.

Material and methods. A literature review was performed with a systematic literature search. The content of the included studies was analysed in terms of its content and relevance. The materials was gathered through electronic database search.

Results. It was found that the key elements of the documentation-related practice of anaesthesiology nurses were as follows: the record-keeping tool should be adjusted to the clinical practice, the documentation for nurses should take into consideration the patient safety aspect and protect nurses from legal consequences; also, the documentation should comply with the current legal regulations and be regularly updated.

Conclusions. Anaesthesiology nurses who keep their documentation contribute to improving the safety of patients and themselves. With observations and taking notes on all performed interventions, it is possible to prevent errors and track changes in the patient’s condition reflected in their medical record.


SIDS is one of the biggest problems of modern medicine. In the diagnosis of SIDS, we take into account all possible diseases that may be the cause of death, as well as factors indicating an accident or murder. The etiology of SIDS is not yet known. There are several pathogenetic concepts, most of which refer to pathophysiological changes associated with nervous system hypoplasia. The most important risk factors include the effects of tobacco smoke, obstetric history, and incorrect sleep position. The role of risk factors in the pathogenesis of SIDS and their interdependence is still the subject of many studies. There are many theories developed on this subject, but none have been supported by scientific research and which is extremely difficult to carry out in this group of newborns. In most cases, medical help finds a newborn already dead, so it is difficult to say what is the main cause or marker of cot death. A considerable success in preventing the onset of sudden infant death syndrome turned out to be educational campaigns for parents - in order to follow up, an information leaflet was prepared with the basic recommendations in the prevention of SIDS. Among the parents of newborn children there are still many controversial opinions about risk factors in the onset of sudden infant death syndrome, the article contains and explains the meaning of individual activities that are considered to predispose to SIDS.


The profession of a paramedic involves a constant contact with traumatic events - road accidents, disasters, acts of violence and so on. As a consequence of such frequent and long-lasting exposure to traumatic events, paramedics are prone to developing PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder). This is a chronic disorder impacting cognitive, emotional, behavioral and somatic experiences. As a result of a prolonged exposure to stressful events, such condition can be life threatening. There are two ways of diagnosing PTSD: structured interviews and self-rating questionnaires (self-rating scales). The researcher should choose the best method possible relying not only on its procedure. In addition, merit based factors and psychometric parameters should be taken into consideration. The present article provides an overview of both Polish as well as foreign PTSD assessment methods, which could be incorporated into the research conducted in a group of paramedics.


Introduction. The population migration to the countries of the European Union (EU) of the conflict of war has grown substantially in recent years. According to the Office for Foreigners in Poland are staying 586 thousand foreigners. 279 refugees from Syria arrived in Poland in 2015. The economic development of Poland means that the number of foreigners settling in or crossing Poland and using the services of the Polish health service is constantly growing. Foreigners from outside Europe (the largest groups are Vietnamese – 8.8 thousand and Chinese – 6.2 thousand) were brought up in a different culture, but also people from European countries (the largest group are immigrants from Ukraine – 513 thousand) may differ from Poles perceive health and illness. Health Personnel may encounter difficulties in providing medical assistance and taking care of a culturally different patient. They may result from the language barrier, lack of knowledge about the differences in patients’ expectations or lack of skills in communication with the patient. The result may be improper assistance, violation of patients’ rights and avoiding the use of medical services.

Aim. Presentation of the migration of population in EU countries, analysis of problems arising during the provision of assistance to culturally different patients and an indication of the possibility of developing cultural competences of paramedics, nurses and doctors through education in this area.


Introduction. The paper presents the adaptation of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale to the conditions in Polish hospitals.

Methods. The process of cultural adaptation of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale was divided into three stages. The first stage was to formulate the Polish version of the ISAS. Secondly, the scale was used in the group of patients who were diagnosed with a maxillofacial injury and underwent surgical procedure. The final stage evaluated the psychometric features of the Polish version of the ISAS.

Results. 195 questionnaires were completed correctly and they were subject to further analysis. The questionnaires were collected from patients residing at the Maxillofacial Surgery Clinical Ward who were operated under a general anaesthesia due to a maxillofacial trauma. The average result of the satisfaction with anaesthesia in a studied group was 0.77 (scale from -3 to +3) M=2, SD=2.41. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient calculated for 11 multiple choice questions was 0.598. It would be possible to increase the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient if question no. 1 (I vomited or felt nauseous) was eliminated from the test (maximum 0.601). Every item on the scale had significant influence on the general result (p=0.0001).

Conclusions. Polish version of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale meets the criteria of the psychometric equivalence with the original version. It is necessary to continue research using Polish version of the ISAS to provide a constant verification of reliability and accuracy of the research tool.


Bacillus spp. can be regarded as a rare component of the nasal mucosa microflora. The aim of this study was to identify Bacillus spp. from the nasal mucosa of healthy adults living in the suburban area near Lublin using the matrix-assisted laser desorptionionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system.

A total of 11 bacterial isolates from the nasal specimens were cultured. The following species were identified using the routine microbiological methods: Staphylococcus aureus (3 isolates), S. epidermidis (1 isolate), S. intermedius (1 isolate) and Staphylococcus spp. (1 isolate). Moreover, 2 strains of Escherichia coli were isolated. Besides, 3 isolates of Bacillus spp. were found. These isolates were characterized by means of MALDI-TOF MS, resulting in highly specific mass spectral fingerprints and these were identified as B. pumilus, B. safenis and B. licheniformis. It was observed that all studied Bacillus spp. isolates only had the masses in common at 3864 ± 2, 7727 ± 2, and 14301 ± 4. The spectra of B. safensis and B. pumilus showed peaks at m/z 4914 ± 3, 6621 ± 3 and 14291 ± 2, which were absent in the spectrum of B. licheniformis. For B. safenis and B. pumilus, other potential biomarkers could be found at m/z 12620 and 16668, respectively.


Introduction. The nursing profession in Poland is subject to continuous transformations, but it should follow the directions based on the common framework for the development of specialist nursing, drawn up by international specialist nurses associations in Europe. A change in the nursing education system in Poland has provided an opportunity for progress based on consistent framework.

Summary. Nurse education organised in a system of first cycle and second cycle university courses was a milestone towards improving the status of the nursing profession. The improved position of Polish nurses paved the way for further advancements in this profession and in the related scientific research, which in the past was rarely conducted by Polish nurses; today more and more research teams are launched and operate both at universities and in nurses’ scientific associations.