This article presents tools used in the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) which are useful when assessing the evolution direction of technical systems. The following matters are discussed: the S-shaped curve, laws (trends and lines) of the evolution of technical systems, multi-screen diagrams, as well as analysis of evolutionary potential. Inventive laws formulated by Gienrich Altshuller as well as laws previously formulated by a Polish writer and promoter of knowledge, Aleksander Głowacki, writing under the pen name Bolesław Prus, have been presented. Finally the innovation roadmaps have been shown. The use of individual tools has been supported by practical examples taken from research performed by the authors, and the usefulness of individual methods was evaluated. All methods have been compared and evaluated.
The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland’s innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).
Poland has a strong ambition to evolve rapidly into a knowledge-driven economy. Since 2004, it has been the largest beneficiary of European Union cohesion policy funds among all member states. Between 2007 and 2013, Poland was allocated approximately EUR 67 billion, whereas for 2014-2020 the EU budget earmarked EUR 82.5 billion for Polish cohesion policy. This means that in the coming years, Poland’s R&D intensity will grow. But the question remains: is 27 years of free market economy enough to enable a country’s economy to become knowledge-based ? This paper offers an analysis of Polish R&D expenditures and investments in terms of their sources (business, government or higher education sectors), types (European Union or state aid) and areas of support (infrastructure, education or innovation). It also characterises the Polish R&D market with its strengths and weaknesses. Then, it examines the process of technology transfer in Poland, comparing it to best practice. Finally, the paper lays out the barriers to effective commercialisation that need to be overcome, and attempts to answer the question raised in its title.
Aiming to strengthen cooperation between scientific entities and enterprises and to overcome related obstacles, the authors propose to create a mechanism of incentives called BIZ-TRIZ, which is an abbreviation for “TRIZ for Business”. This mechanism is used to support cooperation between scientific entities and companies. Close cooperation is achieved by implementing R&D&I services, which is the responsibility of the scientific unit operating for the benefit of the companies involved. Research services are used together with the scientific instrument that reflects achievements in the modern theory of innovative problem solving (TRIZ). The analysis was made using the Maritime University of Szczecin and SME-type companies as an example. This paper describes the basic assumptions concerning the implementation of the BIZ-TRIZ mechanism. Also, it presents the use of SWOT analysis, needs/stakeholder analysis and risk analysis for the implementation of the BIZ-TRIZ mechanism. The paper describes preventative actions for the most important implementation risks and discusses the results of the analyses. Finally, it introduces the main conclusions regarding the purpose of implementing the BIZ-TRIZ mechanism.