In this paper, the results of the study of the comprehensive village renewal programme in Burgenland are considered in the light of the concept of social capital. Changes to the social structures and demographic changes have a strong impact on the formation of social capital in the villages and are therefore a central challenge facing the policies of the municipalities. An objective in the further development of the programme for comprehensive village renewal is to strengthen the local and regional social capital. The implementation of participative village renewal processes has the potential for increasing social capital in the villages, but certain conditions need to be in place for this. The paper analyses and discusses how the programme has contributed to date to the formation of social capital, what opportunities the municipalities have and what instruments they will need in future to build up the social capital that is crucial to sustainable village development.
Attila Tóth, Axel Timpe, Richard Stiles, Doris Damyanovic, István Valánszki, Alena Salašová, Agata Cieszewska and Elizabeth Brabec
Though often overlooked due to its scale, small sacral Christian architecture has a significant importance in cultural landscapes in Europe and beyond. It represents a shared international cultural heritage and is significant in its diversity, distribution and abundance across cultural landscapes. The tradition of the artistic depiction of the cross in Christianity dates back to the 4th century AD. The first monuments in the form of crosses were placed in open landscapes in Scotland in the 7th century. The most important period for the spread of small sacral architecture of Catholic origin in eastern Europe was during the Baroque, thus most of the preserved small sacral monuments date back to the late 17th,18th and 19th centuries. They are often accompanied by monumental single trees or a compositionally organised group of trees and create a sacred composition of nature and culture. They have become important landmarks, indicators of place and landscape features of spatial organization, representing a significant historical legacy and cultural heritage for future generations. This article elaborates on the origin, historical development and landscape values of small sacral Christian architecture, as well as their relation to separate natural monuments or natural features that create part of the sacral composition, such as memorial trees growing around them. This article introduces the topic of sacral architecture and its contribution to the character and identity of European cultural landscapes.