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He Chen, Donglin Ma, Yichao Li, Yu Liu and Ye Wang

Abstract

Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 was microencapsulated by extrusion method with sodium alginate. This paper aimed to study the survival rate of microencapsulating Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, resistance to artificial bile salt and stability during storage. Results showed non-microencapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 were more susceptible than microencapsulated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, and microencapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 exhibited a lower population reduction than free cells during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal, The enteric test showed that the microorganism cells were released from the monolayer microcapsules, double microcapsules and trilayer completely in 40min. The viable counts of monolayer microcapsules, double layer microcapsules and triple layer microcapsules decreased by nine magnitudes, four magnitude and one magnitude after 2h, respectively. Moreover, in fruit orange, pure milk and nutrition Express, the optimum storage times of free Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01, monolayer microcapsules, double layer microcapsules and triple layer microcapsules were 21 days, 21 days, 28 days and more than 35 days at 4°C, but at room temperature the optimum storage time were 7 days, 14 days, 21 days and more than 28 days, and the viable counts were maintained at 1×106 CFU g−1 or more.

Open access

He Chen, Donglin Ma, Yichao Li, Yu Liu and Ye Wang

Abstract

The effects of cell suspension-alginate ratios, sodium erythorbate, and inulin on encapsulation yield of microcapsules of Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 were studied by Box-Behnken design. The experimental results indicated that cell suspension-alginate ratios, sodium erythorbate and inulin had a significant impact on encapsulation yield, and the embedding yield could be enhanced significantly in the condition of 1:3 cell suspension-alginate ratios, 0.12% sodium erythorbate, and 6% inulin. The optimal embedding yields of microencapsulation of B. bifidum BB01 were observed to be 81.52%, that values were very close to the expected values 81.81%, so the method was effective.

Open access

Donglin Liu, Chunxiang Wang and Shaohui Wang

Abstract

The product graph Gm *Gp of two given graphs Gm and Gp, defined by J.C. Bermond et al.[J Combin Theory, Series B 36(1984) 32-48] in the context of the so-called (Δ,D)-problem, is one interesting model in the design of large reliable networks. This work deals with sufficient conditions that guarantee these product graphs to be hamiltonian-connected. Moreover, we state product graphs for which provide panconnectivity of interconnection networks modeled by a product of graphs with faulty elements.

Open access

Mukesh Prasad, Yu-Ting Liu, Dong-Lin Li, Chin-Teng Lin, Rajiv Ratn Shah and Om Prakash Kaiwartya

Abstract

A novel data knowledge representation with the combination of structure learning ability of preprocessed collaborative fuzzy clustering and fuzzy expert knowledge of Takagi- Sugeno-Kang type model is presented in this paper. The proposed method divides a huge dataset into two or more subsets of dataset. The subsets of dataset interact with each other through a collaborative mechanism in order to find some similar properties within each-other. The proposed method is useful in dealing with big data issues since it divides a huge dataset into subsets of dataset and finds common features among the subsets. The salient feature of the proposed method is that it uses a small subset of dataset and some common features instead of using the entire dataset and all the features. Before interactions among subsets of the dataset, the proposed method applies a mapping technique for granules of data and centroid of clusters. The proposed method uses information of only half or less/more than the half of the data patterns for the training process, and it provides an accurate and robust model, whereas the other existing methods use the entire information of the data patterns. Simulation results show the proposed method performs better than existing methods on some benchmark problems.