The presented research deals with the development of comfortable male underwear taking into account the development of pattern block methods and the analysis of the relationships existing between the compression pressure, the knitted materials properties, and some push-up effects. The main aim of this study is to achieve the technical selection of the materials based on KES-FB evaluations.The ease value has been used as the main index to connect the structural design of underwear, on one hand, and the body sizes, on other hand. A “bodyshell” system for testing the soft tissue of male bodies by FlexiForce sensor has been implemented. The pressures under the shells at six different places on the male body with ease changing have been tested.The collected results including maximum-possible pressure and material tensile indexes measured thanks to KES-FB have been analyzed in order to find the most relevant indexes of the material properties. A mathematical equations based on relationships combining theoretical model with practical application have been established. These equations will be helpful for the consumers and designers to select “the suitable knitting materials for male underwear” and they can be used too in the perspective of parameterization in CAD, in order to improve product developments efficiency.
This paper aims to provide rapid and precise methods to allow industrials to predict the amount of sewing thread needed to sew a garment using different lockstitches of class 300 (301, 301/301, 304, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, and 315). To avoid unused stocks for each stitch type, a sewing consumption value was determined using a geometrical method of different lockstitch shapes. Furthermore, the relationships between overall geometrical models of the studied lockstitches of class 300 were developed. Indeed, based on the geometrical model of lockstitch type 301, all theoretical models proposed were investigated and proved to be accurate. Moreover, referring to the findings, the prediction of the sewing thread consumption relative to each investigated lockstitch was proposed as a function of the studied input parameters. To improve the established models using geometrical technique, a statistical method was conducted. In addition, based on multi-linear regression, compared geometrical and statistical results were discussed and the coefficient R2 value was determined to evaluate the accuracy of the tested methods. By comparing the estimated thread consumption with the experimental ones, we concluded that the accuracy of the models is significant (R2 ranged from 93.91% to 99.10%), which encourages industrialists to use geometrical models to predict thread consumption. Therefore, the accuracy of prediction using the geometrical method is more accurate than the statistical method regarding the range of R2 (from 92.84% to 97.87%). To classify the significance of all studied parameters, their contributions to the sewing thread consumption behavior were analyzed in the experimental design of interest. It was concluded that the most important parameters affecting thread consumption are stitch width, stitch density, and the gap between two needles. The thickness of fabric has a low contribution to the thread consumption value, whereas the effect of yarn count can be neglected.
The article evaluates the amount of the consumed sewing thread for women’s underwear (underwear bras and panties). Based on the obtained findings, it was concluded that sewing thread amount depends enormously on the studied influential parameters. The present paper reports a contribution that allows industries and researchers to decrease the consumed amounts of sewing thread in case of women’s underwear and panties The study takes into account the different stitch structures and fabric characteristics that are usually used. The effects of influential input parameters, such as fabric thickness, number of assembled layers, stitch density, and tension of the thread, are investigated. Useful models have been found and can be used by industries to accuracy predict the thread consumption for women’s underwear and panties to launch the needed thread commands. The developed models use multiregressive method. In this study, the fabrics that have been considered are knitted fabrics because they are those used in women’s underwear. We found that women’s underwear bras consume more sewing threads than panties. Using linear regression method, good relationships (coefficients of correlation close to 1) between consumption behaviors and the investigated parameters such as fabric thickness, number of assembled layers, stitch number per centimeter, sizes and tension of threads, were found. Although, the increase of threads tension to sew female underwear decreases the consumed amount of threads, the increase of other studied parameters widely encourages the consumption values, especially for seams based on chain-stitch types.
This work deals with determination of rapid and precise methods to predict the amount of sewing thread needed to sew a garment using different chain stitches of the class 400 (from 401 to 407 chain stitches). At first, to avoid unused stocks, sewing consumption value was determined using a geometrical method (based on different chain stitch shapes). The prediction of the sewing thread consumption was proposed as a function of the studied input parameters, which are fabric thickness, stitch density, yarn linear density, and stitch width. Then, a statistical method based on the multilinear regression was studied. Geometrical and statistical results were discussed. Based on the R2 range, we concluded that the geometrical method is more accurate than the statistical one (from 98.16 to 99.19% and from 97.30 to 98.51%, respectively). Thus, this result encourages industrialists to use geometrical models to predict thread consumption.
Also, all studied parameters, contributing to the sewing thread consumption behavior, were investigated and analyzed. The result shows that the most important parameters affecting thread consumption are stitch density followed by stitch width and fabric thickness. The yarn density has a low contribution on the thread consumption value.
Rapid and precise methods (geometrical and statistical), which aim to predict the amount of sewing thread needed to sew a garment using different over-edge stitches of class 500 (501, 503, 504, 505, 512, 514, 515, and 516), have been provided. Using a geometrical method of different over-edge stitch shapes, sewing consumption value was determined to avoid the unused stocks for each stitch type. The prediction of the sewing thread consumption relative to each investigated over-edge stitch was proposed as a function of the studied input parameters, such as material thickness, stitch density, yarn diameter, and seam width (distance between the needle and the cutter and the distance between two needles). To improve the established models using a geometrical method, a statistical method based on multi-linear regression was studied. Geometrical and statistical results were discussed, and the coefficient R2 value was determined to evaluate the accuracy of the tested methods. By comparing the estimated thread consumption with the experimental ones, we concluded that the geometrical method is more accurate than the statistical method regarding the range of R2 (from 97.00 to 98.78%), which encourages industrialists to use geometrical models to predict thread consumption.
All studied parameters contributing to the sewing thread consumption behavior were investigated and analyzed in the experimental design of interest. It was concluded that the most important parameter affecting thread consumption is the stitch density. The material thickness and the seam width (B1) have a little impact on thread consumption values. However, the seam thread diameter has a neglected effect on thread consumption.
Recently, the development efforts focused on the computer simulation of garments, which depend on the material's physico-mechanical properties. It intends to achieve the best possible and realistic simulations of garments, which are available for pressure prediction. In this manner, 3D garment virtual technology improvements allow the visualization of pressure areas with values where the fabric might be too tight against the body. Although the purposes of simulation graphics were acceptable, the accuracy for apparel shaping is not enough to meet the needs of Virtual Prototyping and CAD utilization especially while the fabric properties system design was inadequate. Moreover, the existing pressure simulation is intended to simply predict the pressure index or how the textile deformation extend, which are deficient in real human's perception. In this research, the 3D shapes belonging to typical female bodies and dresses made of different fabrics were obtained by 3D body scanners (ScanWorX and TELMAT). Through reconstruction for the 3D torso shapes, the volumetric eases between body and dress were calculated by means of a software Rhinoceros. A new approach for the selection of textile properties based on the Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was proposed to investigate its relations with dress shaping and pressure comfort. Finally, fabric properties tested by the KES-F system were compared with volumetric eases, objective pressure indexes and subjective comfort scores to reveal the relations how the fabric properties have impacts on dress outside shaping and inside pressure comfort of a female body. In this manner, the human-friendly CAD instead of mechanical approach existing before has been presented as a new approach to promote the construction of a realistic system for the 3D simulation optimization.
In this study, a simple, general and straightforward method for growing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) crystals directly on nanofibers is presented. A chelating polymer was first blent with metal cation and then electrospun. The obtained nanofibers were immersed in a linker solution. Metal cations were released and the metal-organic frameworks crystals were grown on the fibers’ surface. In this work, this method was tested with polyvinyl alcohol as chelating polymer, Zn2+ as metal cation and Terephthalic acid as linker. The pair cation/linker corresponds to the MOF-5. The latter is a robust metal organic framework formed from Zn4O nodes with 1,4-benzodicarboxylic acid struts between the nodes. SEM images revealed that the MOF-5 nanocrystals have grown along the PVA/Zn2+ nanofibers that served as the crystals’ growth template by providing the Zn2+ ions. This result was also confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, which indicates the presence of characteristic bands of MOF-5 in the modified nanofibers spectrum. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction showed that MOF-5 material was well crystallized on the nanofibers surface according to a cubic symmetry with a space group Fm-3m and a lattice constant a = 25.8849 Å.
Fabric noise generated by fabric-to-fabric friction is considered as one of the auditory disturbances that can have an impact on the quality of some textile products. For this reason, an instrument has been developed to analyse this phenomenon. The instrument is designed to simulate the relative movement of a human arm when walking. In order to understand the nature of the relative motion of a human arm, films of the upper half of the human body were taken. These films help to define the parameters required for movement simulation. These parameters are movement trajectory, movement velocity, arm pressure applied on the lateral part of the trunk and the friction area. After creating the instrument, a set of soundtracks related to the noise generated by fabric-to-fabric friction was recorded. The recordings were treated with a specific software to extract the sound parameters and the acoustic imprints of fabric were obtained.
During daily oral health care, dental surgeons are in contact with numerous potentially infectious germs from patients’ saliva and blood. Appropriate personal protection equipment should be chosen to mitigate these risks, but the garment must also be comfortable and not hamper activities. This paper presents our research work on optimised working clothing for dentists and discusses some important points in the functional design. Following a consumer study on how users wear the garment and what are their expectations, three main functions were investigated: protection, ergonomics and thermal comfort. Aesthetic appearance was also taken into consideration as it is necessary that the wearer should feel appropriately and attractively dressed in the context of health care.
Concerning protection, spray tests in real conditions helped us to localise the potential contamination areas on the garment and led us to select a three-layered material that is protective and breathable enough. However, this part of the garments made from these fabrics exhibited low thermal comfort and the wearer felt some discomfort. In terms of ergonomics, instrumented garments were worn and pressure measurements were taken. The results highlight that a special shape and raglan sleeves should be selected for a better dynamic comfort. Concerning thermal comfort, an infrared camera was used to detect warm zones of the garment where heat and moisture transfers should be enhanced. Breathable, stretchable and shape-retaining knitted fabric that is usually used for sportswear was selected. These fabrics were strategically placed as low and high vents to promote a chimney effect, which minimises retention of heat and humidity inside the garment. The usual PES/cotton fabric was selected for the rest of the gown.
Based on these results, a new gown has been proposed. Through fitting tests conducted in a hospital on 25 dentists, it was revealed that the new design was highly appreciated, particularly on the ergonomic structure of the sleeves and thermal comfort of breathable zones. However, some points can be further improved, such as durability of the PES/cotton fabric, the neck length or the shape of ‘breathable zones’. The final product will be produced based on necessary improvements