The analyses of the nonconformity of products are made in order to achieve the desired level of their quality. This is also the case in the analyzed enterprise located in south-eastern Poland. Due to production character in this enterprise to identify the incompatibilities of products the non-destructive tests are used. In the current approach to quality after identified the nonconformities the cause her arise were determined, it was noted in order to use by statistical analyzes. Unfortunately, no deeper qualitative analyzes were made which could specify the source of its creation. Therefore, it was considered that it is necessary to propose to use (near current actions according to non-destructive tests) the sequence of quality management instruments. In order to improve the quality control actions, the sequence of techniques which complement each other, i.e. non-destructive tests, Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method, was proposed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sequence, the rear cover of the bearing turbine was selected as the subject of the analysis. The choice was conditioned by the unit character of production, which till now was discouraged a detailed analysis of sources of nonconformities. After analyzed the product with used the fluorescent method the nonconformities were identified on the rear cover of the bearing turbine, which was the porosity cluster. In order to identify the causes these nonconformities the Ishikawa diagram was drawn up. Next, the selected main causes (i.e. supplier of the product and nonconformities created during the production of the product) were analyzed the 5Why method in order to identify the source cause of the problem. In this case, it was the nonconformity material from the supplier. The proposed sequence, which uses the minimal resources let to show the wide range of information, which should be used to the improvement of quality. The presented the set of activities can be practised in each of the enterprises to analyze quality problems in order to identify the nonconformities and their causes.
Meeting the required quality level of products taking into account customer requirements is the essence of thriving enterprises. In this context, it is necessary to make decisions that take into account mentioned the quality level but also the cost aspect relevant to both customer and producer. It was concluded that it is possible to make analyse in which connected the quality level with the cost aspect will condition the make the best choice. Therefore, the aim of work was to propose the pro-quality method of choice by using the ordered fuzzy numbers connected with cost-quality analysis (AKJ). The subject of the study were machines used in pad printing technique, so-called pad print, which choice resulted from their problematic choice to specific and often variable working conditions. As part of the method by using ordered fuzzy numbers, using the Fuzzy TOPSIS method (The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) the most favorable machine by quality was determined. Subsequently, a pro-quality machine choice was made, and this choice combined the obtained quality level with the purchase cost through the use of cost-quality analysis. The proposed method is some kind of new approach to making the best decision, where the aspect of quality with the cost was connected. Therefore, the proposed method can be used to solve different types of decision problems in production and services enterprises.
The analysis of product quality is an indispensable action in developing enterprises. In case of mechanical products, the non-destructive tests (NDT) are effective way to make control. Non-destructive tests allow making assessing product quality without destroying it. Due to the dynamically growing requirements of customers and necessary, the improvement actions for demanding organizations important is to make a complex analysis of quality products. Such an action was proposed to a production and service company located in Podkarpacie region of Poland. The aim was to analyze the quality of the mechanical lever and improvement the process of non-destructive tests, in order to identify the source of nonconformity with using quality management techniques. These activities were to demonstrate that the sequence (NDT and selected quality management techniques) would allow the detection of unconformities on the product surface and also identify the source of this unconformity. In the enterprise, the quality research of the product using fluorescent and magnetic-powder methods was made. After identified the unconformity on the product the additional actions which could point the source of unconformity were not practicing. The proposition of improvement in the NTD was use appropriately selected quality management techniques (Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method) after identified the unconformity. The mechanical lever was tested, which its surface using the magnetic-powder method was analyzed. After identified unconformity (scratch) using the Ishikawa diagram, the potential causes were identified and four main causes were selected (i.e.: uncleaned pattern, impurities during production, poor molding mass, poorly carried out product production method). It has been shown that sequence of NDT, Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method allows to identify the unconformity on product surface and source its creation. This sequence could be practicing to analyze other product in production and services enterprises.
Making a complex analysis of the problem in order to identify the root of its occurrence, is the process burdened with the risk of uncertainty. This risk is in case of the quality analysis, in which the choice and making a decision is not confirmed by reliable information (number). This risk is in case of the quality analysis, in which the choice and making a decision is not confirmed by reliable information (number). But these techniques do not include the risk of uncertainty, so their sequence should be expanded about the appropriate method, to take this into account. It was considered beneficial to demonstrate that this method is the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process method (FAHP). The aim of the study to implement the FAHP method in the sequence of traditional quality management techniques (Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method) and proposition new, not practiced yet the method to complex analysis of the problem and identify the root of its root cause. The subject of the study was the furniture front, on which the incompatibility was identified (shortened foil). From the categories to which the potential causes of the inadequate foil were assigned, by using the Ishikawa diagram and the FAHP method in an integrated manner, were defined the most important categories (method and machine) in a precise (numerical) way. Next, using the same tools, the relationship between the potential causes was analysed and selected the main causes of the problem. Then, by using the 5Why method the root of the problem was defined (lack of the new machine and failure to comply with labor standards). The obtained results could differ depending on the subjectivity, however, the method itself proved to be effective and can be used to solve other types of the problem.
As part of continuous quality improvement in well-managed enterprises, identifying unconformity should initiate actions to find their causes. Therefore, it was proposed to the enterprise located in Podkarpacie to use in the sequential way the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. The aim was to analyse of unconformity (porosity cluster) on the turbine outlet nozzle and identify the root of its creation. In the enterprise, the quality analysis of the products with a fluorescent method was carried out, but after identifying the unconformity, non-analysis of their reason for their occurrence was not practiced. Therefore, it was intentional to propose the use of sequence i.e. Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method to identify the root of unconformity. The subject of study was the turbine outlet nozzle, on which the fluorescent method the porosity cluster was identified. With the use of the Ishikawa diagram, the main cause of the problem was pointed (unconformity during production), and by the 5Why method the root cause of the problem, i.e. unconformity material from the supplier, was identified. The proposed method sequence is a simple and effective way to make analyses of unconformities and it can be used in different products and service enterprises.
The research of railway track surfaces is aimed at improving the quality of railway infrastructure and providing the chance of improving the safety of driving. Therefore, it is advisable to constantly monitor track surface, but the research itself is not innovative because it is based on a known procedure. The crucial element are the techniques that allow to delve into the sources of problems. The aim of the article is to use the selected instruments of quality management to analyze the causes of track twist at high (180 km/h) speed of driving. The analysis of the causes of track twist was done on the basis of results from the measurement of one kilometer track section of the Krakow Glowny - Medyka route, which was made by using the TEC measuring device in April 2018. It was inferred that it is impossible to reach 180 km/h without track twist. In order to identify the causes of track twist it was proposed to use the selected sequence of quality management instruments, i.e.: brainstorming, Ishikawa diagram and the 5Why method. The identified causes of track twist include the abrasion of rail, scratches and exploitation point. The analysis and conclusions drawn from it may be useful in the analysis of other problems in railway transport as well as production and service industries.