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  • Author: Dominik Strapagiel x
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Joanna Kołsut, Paulina Borówka, Błażej Marciniak, Ewelina Wójcik, Arkadiusz Wojtasik, Dominik Strapagiel and Jarosław Dastych

Abstract

Introduction: Colibacillosis – the most common disease of poultry, is caused mainly by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). However, thus far, no pattern to the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of these bacteria has been established beyond dispute. In this study, genomes of APEC were investigated to ascribe importance and explore the distribution of 16 genes recognised as their virulence factors.

Material and Methods: A total of 14 pathogenic for poultry E. coli strains were isolated, and their DNA was sequenced, assembled de novo, and annotated. Amino acid sequences from these bacteria and an additional 16 freely available APEC amino acid sequences were analysed with the DIFFIND tool to define their virulence factors.

Results: The DIFFIND tool enabled quick, reliable, and convenient assessment of the differences between compared amino acid sequences from bacterial genomes. The presence of 16 protein sequences indicated as pathogenicity factors in poultry resulted in the generation of a heatmap which categorises genomes in terms of the existence and similarity of the analysed protein sequences.

Conclusion: The proposed method of detection of virulence factors using the capabilities of the DIFFIND tool may be useful in the analysis of similarities of E. coli and other sequences deriving from bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in reliable segregation of 30 APEC strains into five main clusters containing various virulence associated genes (VAGs).

Open access

Aneta Sitek, Iwona Rosset, Dominik Strapagiel, Małgorzata Majewska, Lidia Ostrowska-Nawarycz and Elżbieta Żądzińska

Abstract

The goal of the study was verification of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms as significant risk factors of obesity in the population of Polish children. Body mass index (BMI) and DNA were evaluated, where DNA was extracted from saliva, collected from 213 children at the age of 6-13 years. DNA was genotyped by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and HRM (high resolution melting) techniques, as well as by direct sequencing. Three (3) FTO polymorphisms were identified: rs9939609, rs9926289 and rs76804286, the last polymorphism located between the first two. For the first time, absolute linkage disequilibrium (LD) of FTO gene rs9939609 and rs9926289 polymorphisms was confirmed in data for the Polish population (D’=1, r2=1). The lack of a complete dependence among the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FTO gene was a consequence of the concurrence of homozygotes with minor alleles A of rs9939609+rs9926289 of FTO (AA+AA) with major alleles of rs76804286 (GG). A case-control association analysis for BMI in obese children (n=51), as compared to normal-weight children (n=162), was based on the effects of genotypes homozygous for the minor alleles of the studied SNPs in recessive and codominant inheritance models (assuming an independent effect of each genotype). A comparison of children with normal BMI with obese children indicate a strong co-dominant effect of a genotype in homozygotes of minor alleles (AA+AA) of completely linked rs9939609+rs9926289 (OR at age 8.89 ± 1.54 years=4.87, 95% CI 1.81-13.12, p=0.002). An almost five-fold increase of obesity risk in the examined children indicates that the genetic factors, associated with excessive body weight gain, exert stronger effects in the early period of ontogenetic development vs. puberty and adulthood. The role of genetic factors in predisposing to obesity declines with age

Open access

Iwona Rosset, Dominik Strapagiel, Aneta Sitek, Małgorzata Majewska, Lidia Ostrowska-Nawarycz and Elżbieta Żądzińska

Abstract

The objective of the study was to verify whether or not FTO rs9939609, rs9926289 and TMEM18 rs4854344, rs6548238, rs2867125 variants are important risk factors for overweight and/or obesity in Polish children aged 6-16 (n=283). FTO rs 9939609 and rs9926289 exhibited a strong codominant obesity-predisposing effect of genotypes homozygous for minor alleles (OR=5.42, 95% CI: 2.04-14.39, p=0.0006). The important finding of the study is increased risk of overweight (OR=5.03, 95% CI: 1.15-21.93, p=0.0306) in individuals homozygous for the minor alleles rs4854344, rs6548238 and rs2867125 in the recessive inheritance model, while no other significant associations between TMEM18 variants and risk of obesity were found. Given the identified interaction TMEM18 genotype × BMI category (p=0.0077), it seems that the effect of homozygous for the minor alleles may be compared to a “weight guard”, which significantly increases the risk of overweight, but not of obesity, because it promotes weight gain only up to the threshold of obesity. Conclusion: The proposed hypothetical effect (“weight guard”) of homozygous for the minor alleles in the TMEM18 based on a rather small sample is a possible explanation of the effects of minor alleles, which minimize the risk of obesity.