Two sections of sediment from small oxbow-lake infillings located in different river valleys in central Poland were studied by cladoceran analysis in order to examine the response of aquatic ecosystems to the Younger Dryas. Lithological and geochemical records, as well as chydorid (Chydoridae) ephippia analysis were also used to reconstruct Younger Dryas climate trends. A high concentration of cladocerans, as well as the presence of Cladocera taxa preferring warmer water, was found. It is likely that local processes in the oxbow lakes were important, because the presence of warm-preferring taxa was also related to their habitats and their development. Yet local environmental forces, such as the influence of the rivers, habitat modification, macrophyte abundance, and eutrophication, were not only major factors to affect the Cladocera diversity in the Younger Dryas. The observation of changes in the composition and concentration of Cladocera in oxbow-lake infillings indicates that most of the changes occurred in response to climate changes.
The early sedimentological and ecological developmental stages of a late Vistulian lake in the Żabieniec swamp near Łódź (central Poland) were analysed by radiometric dating, changes in the frequency of specimens and species composition of Cladocera and multivariate statistical analysis (DCA). The longevity of the lake resulted in a fairly complete sedimentary record from approximately 22 ka to 11 ka cal BP. Species composition and the variability in the frequency of Cladocera specimens has made it possible to distinguish eleven zones of their development, which are well correlated with radiocarbon data. The results were compared to those from other sites of north and central Europe. The initial Cladocera development comprises the richest and oldest late Vistulian Cladocera record in Europe. These cladoceran assemblages show that a deep, oligotrophic, moderately cold-water lake was present at the beginning. It appears that the cladoceran development was mainly due to climate change, but also to changes in locally prevailing conditions in the water body. The high frequency of cladocerans, as well as the presence of cladoceran taxa preferring warmer water, was noted before approximately 16 ka BP. The biota suggests that the Oldest Dryas cooling was not severe and fairly variable in terms of humidity and temperature. The changes in Cladocera composition give evidence of what is described as the Intra-Bølling Cold Oscillation. It is also concluded that the Bølling is represented by two phases in the Żabieniec lake sediments.
Dominik Pawłowski, Daniel Okupny, Wojciech Włodarski and Tomasz Zieliński
Geostatistical methods for 2D and 3D modelling spatial variability of selected physicochemical properties of biogenic sediments were applied to a small valley mire in order to identify the processes that lead to the formation of various types of peat. A sequential Gaussian simulation was performed to reproduce the statistical distribution of the input data (pH and organic matter) and their semivariances, as well as to honouring of data values, yielding more ‘realistic’ models that show microscale spatial variability, despite the fact that the input sample cores were sparsely distributed in the X-Y space of the study area. The stratigraphy of peat deposits in the Ldzań mire shows a record of long-term evolution of water conditions, which is associated with the variability in water supply over time. Ldzań is a fen (a rheotrophic mire) with a through-flow of groundwater. Additionally, the vicinity of the Grabia River is marked by seasonal inundations of the southwest part of the mire and increased participation of mineral matter in the peat. In turn, the upper peat layers of some of the central part of Ldzań mire are rather spongy, and these peat-forming phytocoenoses probably formed during permanent waterlogging.
Dominik Pawłowski, Marek Kloss, Milena Obremska, Mateusz Szymanowski and Sławomir Żurek
This paper demonstrates the results of analyses of Cladocera, pollen, plant macrofossil, lithological and radiocarbon data recovered from a mire located in the Rawka River valley in central Poland. These studies permit to recognise the development of hydrology phases in Kopanicha mire and give insight into Holocene fluvial dynamics of the system; radiocarbon dating partly allowed da-ting of the patterns of Holocene valley floor development of the Rawka River. The Kopanicha mire was formed during the Atlantic period. At that time, an oxbow lake formed, becoming a mire during the Subboreal and possibly Subatlantic periods. The high sensitivity of the oxbow lakes, fens, fauna, and flora remains to climate variations - especially to changes in water level connected with the ag-gradation-erosion cycle of rivers - allows the reconstruction of the palaeoecological changes that oc-curred in the mire. The frequency and timing of hydroclimatic oscillations at Kopanicha show strong similarities to records from other sites in Poland. Changes in Cladocera frequency and plant assem-blages were mostly influenced by the Rawka River which controlled the hydrological regime of the mire. The main factors controlling the presence of Cladocera taxa were the water level and the pres-ence of favourable conditions in the mire (e.g. pH, vegetation). Most of the changes occurred in re-sponse to climate changes, but some of them were connected with local factors.