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  • Author: Doina Azoicai x
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Abstract

Background: The risk of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recognized worldwide, a reason for which the World Health Organization aims to reduce this public health issue of major concern in the next ten years. The aim of our study was to detect circulating HBV genotypes in a selected population of pregnant women, as scientific evidence to recommend personalized antiviral therapy and to obtain updated epidemiological information.

Methods: HBsAg positive pregnant women were selected by the National Institute of Public Health Romania. Blood samples were collected after signing the informed consent. The HBV genotypes were tested by INNO LiPA HBV genotyping method.

Results. The D genotype was detected in 9/18 (50%) patients, genotype A in 3/18 (16.7%), and genotype F in 3/18 (16.7%) patients. Three patients had double infection, 11 had unique infection, and 4 had no detectable genotype.

Conclusion. This study confirmed the results of previous studies regarding HBV genotype circulation in our country, with the mention that F genotype was a new one for our area. These data are useful from an epidemiological point of view and also for therapeutical reasons, as it is known that therapy should be genotype guided.

Abstract

Introduction: Invasive fungal infections have stood as an important research subject for the past 20 years, being considered as a crucial effect of advancing healthcare services. Low identification rates of invasive fungal infections in blood cultures and low sensibility of biomarkers determine empiric treatments which lead to a change in epidemiological data and antifungal susceptibility. The aim: The epidemiological evaluation of invasive fungal infections and the assessment of antifungal resistance related to this condition. Methods and material: An “antifungal stewardship” retrospective study was developed between January 2010 and April 2016. An epidemiological analysis was performed on 79 cases with proven invasive fungal infections in bloodstream, catheter, and cerebrospinal fluid. We considered: age, gender, HIV status, place of residence, and first option in medical practice of antifungal treatment. The laboratory analysis was performed by the Microbiology Laboratory at “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC’s) of 15 isolates were identified using colorimetric micro broth dilution panel YEASTONE ®YO10 and compared with susceptibilities obtained by VITEK2®C system. Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 was used as reference. Results: The incidence of invasive fungal infections was 3.7 on 1000 hospitalized patients. The age of the study population ranged between 12 and 83 years, and most were male (59%). The majority of subjects were from an urban area (84%), and 27% of them were HIV positive. The results obtained in VITEK2C® were similar with those from YEASTONE® YO10 for fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B (100%), without any minor, major or very major errors. The fluconazole was the first option of treatment, followed by voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin. In 37% of cases the first treatment option was replaced with a secondary antifungal therapy accordingly with antifungal breakpoints obtained by Vitek ®. Conclusions: No rates of resistance to fluconazole, amphotericin B, voriconazole were obtained. Fluconazole was the major first line antifungal therapy. Conclusions: No rates of resistance to fluconazole, amphotericin B, voriconazole were obtained. Fluconazole was the major first line antifungal therapy.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported work-related and occupational hand eczema, as well as associated risk factors in hospitals and out-patient clinics in Romania. A standardized questionnaire was addressed to health professionals from different medical fields. Out of 245 healthcare providers who completed the survey, 235 were women (95.9%), and 243 were working more than 8 hours/day in hospitals (99.18%). Hand eczema was self-reported and documented in almost one third of the nurses (33.49%), the most frequently involved trigger factor being powdered latex gloves. A total of 207 (84.48%) individuals denied any present or past allergic diseases. Only one nurse declared that severe hand eczema was the cause of losing her job at the hospital. Exposure assessment is essential for the diagnosis of work-related or occupational skin diseases.

Abstract

Occupational skin diseases have an unknown prevalence in Romania, although they are considered the most frequent occupational diseases reported in Western European countries. Self-reported hand eczema among healthcare providers by questionnaire aims to estimate the prevalence of work-related hand eczema and associated risk factors in hospitals and outpatient units in Romania. The aim of this study is to discuss and to validate a questionnaire for surveying work-related skin diseases and exposure among healthcare providers.

Abstract

The coexistence of t(9;22) and inv(16) has been described in a very limited number of cases of CML, de novo or therapy-related AML. We report a patient with CML who presented both inversion of chromosome 16 and Philadelphia chromosome and evolved towards the blast phase under treatment with Imatinib. Laboratory diagnosis and monitoring was made by flow cytometry, conventional cytogenetics and molecular genetics techniques. The inv(16), detected by karyotyping in the Philadelphia chromosome positive clone at the moment of the blast transformation, was retrospectively assessed by means of real-time PCR, and was proved to have been present since diagnosis. The bone marrow biopsy performed in the blast phase of CML confirmed the presence of blasts belonging to the myeloid lineage, with indications of monocytic differentiation, frequently associated with inv(16). Moreover, the case also associated a F359V tyrosine kinase domain mutation, resulting in intermediate resistance to Imatinib and Nilotinib, which imposed therapy-switch to Dasatinib. In our case the evolution was progressive, followed by death due to lack of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, 18 months after diagnosis. The coexistence of t(9;22) and inv(16) in CML seems to be associated with an aggressive clinical evolution and resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Due to the very small number of cases described in literature, therapeutic decisions are still difficult for patients displaying these abnormalities