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  • Author: Dmytro O. Minchenko x
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Insulin resistance in obese adolescents affects the expression of genes associated with immune response

Abstract

Objective. The development of obesity and its metabolic complications is associated with dysregulation of various intrinsic mechanisms, which control basic metabolic processes through changes in the expression of numerous regulatory genes.

Methods. The expression level of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-G, HLA-F, and NFX1 genes as well as miR-190b was measured in the blood of obese adolescents without signs of resistance to insulin and with insulin resistance in comparison with the group of relative healthy control individuals without signs of obesity.

Results. It was shown that obesity without signs of insulin resistance is associated with upregulation of the expression level of HLA-DRA and HLA-DRB1 genes, but with down-regulation of HLA-G gene expression in the blood as compared to control group of relative healthy adolescents. At the same time, no significant changes were observed in the expression level of HLA-F and NFX1 genes in the blood of this group of obese adolescents. Development of insulin resistance in obese individuals leads to significant down-regulation of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-G, and HLA-F gene expressions as well as to up-regulation of NFX1 gene as well as microRNA miR-190b in the blood as compared to obese patients without signs of insulin resistance.

Conclusions. Results of this study provide evidence that obesity affects the expression of the subset of genes related to immune response in the blood and that development of insulin resistance in obese adolescents is associated with strong down-regulation of the expressions of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-F, and HLA-G genes, which may be contribute to the development of obesity complications. It is possible that transcription factor NFX1 and miR-190b participate in downregulation of HLA-DRA gene expression in the blood of obese adolescents with insulin resistance.

Open access
Expression of genes encoding IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBPs in blood of obese adolescents with insulin resistance

Abstract

Objective. The development of obesity and its metabolic complications is associated with dys-regulation of various intrinsic mechanisms, which control basic metabolic processes via changes in the expression of numerous regulatory genes. The main goal of this work was to study the association between the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2) and IGF-binding proteins and insulin resistance in obese adolescents for evaluation of possible contribution of these genes in development of insulin resistance.

Methods. The expression of IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBPs mRNA was measured in blood of obese adolescents with normal insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance in comparison with the normal (control) individuals.

Results. In the blood of obese adolescents with normal insulin sensitivity the expression of IGFBP4, IGFBP5 and HTRA1 genes was down-regulated, but IGFBP2 and IGFBP7 genes up-regulated as compared to control (normal) group. At the same time, no significant changes in IGF1 and IGF2 gene expressions in this group of obese adolescents were found. Insulin resistance in obese adolescents led to up-regulation of IGF2, IGFBP2, and IGFBP7 gene expressions as well as to down-regulation of the expression of IGF1, IGFBP5 and HTRA1 genes in the blood in comparison with the obese patients, which have normal insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the level of IGFBP4 gene expression was similar in both groups of obese adolescents.

Conclusions. Results of this investigation provide evidence that insulin resistance in obese adolescents is associated with gene specific changes in the expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP5, IGFBP7, and HTRA1 genes and these changes possibly contribute to the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

Open access
Expression of genes encoding IGFBPs, SNARK, CD36, and PECAM1 in the liver of mice treated with chromium disilicide and titanium nitride nanoparticles

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of chromium disilicide and titanium nitride nanoparticles on the expression level of genes encoding important regulatory factors (IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, IGFBP5, SNARK/NUAK2, CD36, and PECAM1/CD31) in mouse liver for evaluation of possible toxic effects of these nanoparticles.

Methods. Male mice received 20 mg chromium disilicide nanoparticles (45 nm) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (20 nm) with food every working day for 2 months. The expression of IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, IGFBP5, SNARK, CD36, and PECAM1 genes in mouse liver was studied by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results. Treatment of mice with chromium disilicide nanoparticles led to down-regulation of the expression of IGFBP2, IGFBP5, PECAM1, and SNARK genes in the liver in comparison with control mice, with more prominent changes for SNARK gene. At the same time, the expression of IGFBP3 and CD36 genes was increased in mouse liver upon treatment with chromium disilicide nanoparticles. We have also shown that treatment with titanium nitride nanoparticles resulted in down-regulation of the expression of IGFBP2 and SNARK genes in the liver with more prominent changes for SNARK gene. At the same time, the expression of IGFBP3, IGFBP4, and CD36 genes was increased in the liver of mice treated with titanium nitride nanoparticles. Furthermore, the effect of chromium disilicide nanoparticles on IGFBP2 and CD36 genes expression was significantly stronger as compared to titanium nitride nanoparticles.

Conclusions. The results of this study demonstrate that chromium disilicide and titanium nitride nanoparticles have variable effects on the expression of IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, IGFBP5, SNARK, CD36, and PECAM1 genes in mouse liver, which may reflect the genotoxic activities of the studied nanoparticles.

Open access
Effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding insulin-like growth factors and some related proteins in U87 glioma cells without IRE1 function

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2), their receptor (IGF1R), binding protein-4 (IGFBP4), and stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1) for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of tumor growth.

Methods. The expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGFBP4, and STC2 genes in U87 glioma cells transfected by empty vector pcDNA3.1 (control) and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function (transfected by dnIRE1) upon hypoxia was studied by qPCR.

Results. The expression of IGF1 and IGF2 genes is down-regulated in glioma cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function in comparison with the control cells. At the same time, the expression of IGF1R, IGFBP4, and STC2 genes was up-regulated in glioma cells upon inhibition of IRE1, with more significant changes for IGFBP4 and STC2 genes. We also showed that hypoxia does not change significantly the expression of IGF1, IGF2, and IGF1R genes but up-regulated IGFBP4 and STC2 genes expression in control glioma cells. Moreover, the inhibition of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of IRE1 in glioma cells does not change significantly the effect of hypoxia on the expression of IGF1, IGF1R, and IGFBP4 genes but introduces sensitivity of IGF2 gene to hypoxic condition. Thus, the expression of IGF2 gene is resistant to hypoxia only in control glioma cells and significantly down-regulated in cells without functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme, which is central mediator of the unfolded protein response and an important component of the tumor growth as well as metabolic diseases.

Conclusions. Results of this study demonstrate that the expression of IGF1 and IGF1R genes is resistant to hypoxic condition both in control U87 glioma cells and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function. However, hypoxia significantly up-regulates the expression of IGFBP4 gene independently on the inhibition of IRE1 enzyme. These data show that proteins encoded by these genes are resistant to hypoxia except IGFBP4 and participate in the regulation of metabolic and proliferative processes through IRE1 signaling.

Open access