Saccharomyces cerevisiae, waste biomass originated from beer fermentation industry, was used to remove metal ions from four copper-containing synthetic effluents: Cu-Fe, Cu-Fe-Ni, Cu-Fe-Zn, and Cu-Fe-Ni-Zn. The characterization of the biomass surface was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The adsorption behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for copper, iron, nickel and zinc ions in aqueous solution was studied as a function of pH, initial copper concentration, equilibrium time, and temperature. Langmiur, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich equilibrium models have been assessed to describe the experimental sorption equilibrium profile, while pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and the intra-particle diffusion models were applied to describe experimental kinetics data. Maximum sorption capacities have been calculated by means of Langmuir equilibrium model and mean free sorption energies through the Dubinin-Radushkevich model. Thermodynamic analysis results showed that the adsorption of copper, iron and zinc was spontaneous and endothermic in nature, while of nickel exothermic. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be successfully applied for complex wastewater treatment.
The cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia was used to study the biotechnology of selenium nanoparticles synthesis for the first time. The experimental conditions of the nanoparticle production by the studied cyanobacteria in aqueous cobalt selenite solutions were examined. Neutron activation analysis allowed characterization of the dynamics of accumulation of the total selenium quantity by Nostoc linckia. Scanning Electron Microscope images demonstrated extracellular formation of amorphous nanoparticles. Released selenium nanoparticles ranged in size from 10 to 80 nm. The changes of essential parameters of biomass (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and phycobilin) content during the nanoparticle formation were assessed. During the first 24 h of nanoparticle synthesis, a slight decline of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates content in the biomass was observed. The most extensive was the process of phycobilin degradation. Furthermore, all biochemical component content as well as an antioxidant activity of the biomass extracts significantly decreased. The obtained substance of Nostoc biomass with selenium nanoparticles may be used for medical, pharmaceutical and technological purposes.