Bulgaria is one of the European countries with the greatest biodiversity, including biodiversity of medicinal plants. The object of this study is Chepan Mountain. It is located in Western Bulgaria and it is part of Balkan Mountain. On the territory of the Chepan Mountain (only 80 km2) we found 344 species of medicinal plants from 237 genera and 83 families. The floristic analysis indicates, that the most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The hemicryptophytes dominate among the life forms with 49.71%. The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (60.47%). There are 7 types of floristic elements divided in 27 groups. The largest percentage of species are of the European type (58.43%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species and 18 relic species. We described 23 species with protection statute. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 220 species (63.95%).
Studies of medicinal plants have been conducted in many municipalities and regions in Bulgaria, but only species diversity has been studied. Data from ethnobotanical studies in Bulgaria are scarce. The conducted ethno-botanical study of medicinal plants on the territory of Balchik municipality is performed for the first time. As a result, we found that the population of the municipality uses a small part of the medicinal plants: 89 species out of a total of 845 medicinal plants in Bulgaria. Medicinal plants are used mainly for side applications (71%) and to a lesser extent for medicinal purposes (29%). Urban and rural populations use almost the same number of medicinal plants. There are significant differences in the number of plants used by different ethnic groups, age groups and groups with different levels of education. Women use more medicinal plants in human medicine, and in applications for other purposes, more plants are used by men. Most medicinal plants are used by people of active age. The people of Balchik Municipality use for various purposes mostly cultivated medicinal plants, rather than wild and mostly alien species, than native ones. The majority of respondents (78%) do not use medicinal plant substitutes. Most of the people (92.5%) are not aware of the shortcomings of the medicinal plants or the possible side effects of their use.
The Frangensko Plateau is located in the northeastern part of Bulgaria and covers an area of 360 km2. On the territory of the plateau there are two protected areas, as well as two areas of the European ecological network NATURA 2000. The study of the medicinal plants on the territory of the Frangensko Plateau is made for the first time. As a result of our research we found 362 species of vascular plants from 242 genera and 80 families. The most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The analysis of their life form indicates that the hemicryptophytes dominate with 39.50%, followed by the phanerophytes (22.10%). The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (52.21%), annual herbaceous plants (14.09%) and trees (10.50%). There are 8 types of floristic elements divided in 32 groups. The largest percentage of species is of European type (51.93%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species, one Bulgarian endemic species and 30 relic species. Thirty four species with protection statute are described. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 242 species (66.85%).