Background and aims: The obesity and overweight rate among women of childbearing age and fetal macrosomia associated with different birth injuries are very frequent all over the world and with an increasing incidence. The huge amount of published literature on this topic in the last decade is putting the practioners in a very challenging position. Material and method: We have done a systematic review on the recent literature (last five years) based on science direct database. Results: A total of 5990 articles were identified and after successive exclusion of some of them, 48 were deeply analyzed. The results were grouped in following topics: risk factors for fetal macrosomia, the pathophysiology of macrosomia, prenatal clinical and lab diagnosis and prevention of macrosomia. Conclusions: Considering the maternal, fetal and neonatal complications of macrosomia, the counseling, and monitoring of the pregnant women risk group are of particular importance for adopting a low calorie / low glycemic diet and avoiding a sedentary behaviour. Long-term follow-up of the mother and the macrosomic baby is required because of the risk of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome later in life.