Isabela Popa, Diana Protasiewicz, Cristina Muntean, Simona Georgiana Popa and Maria Mota
Phisical activity, regularly performed, give us a lot of health benefit, especially inpreventing cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity. Physicalexercise, defined as a controlled, progressive, supervised, requires muscular activity,involving energy consumption through metabolic and thermoregulatory processes. Itcan be classified as aerobic and anaerobic, according to the metabolic processesthat take place. The metabolic equivalent (MET) represents the body’s energyconsumption during rest and it is used for quantifying fhisical activity (for example,a MET value of 3 would require 3 times the energy that is consumed at rest). Musclecontraction has two different phases: the isometric one (usually during the first partof the contraction) and the isotonic one. This article presents the interrelation ofphisical activity with with the complexity of metabolic patwais, bringing thearguments for the necessity of performing regular and controlled phisical activity.
Adela-Gabriela Firănescu, Adina Popa, Maria-Magdalena Sandu, Diana Cristina Protasiewicz, Simona Georgiana Popa and Maria Moţa
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Tuberculosis (TB) are two chronic diseases which have a major impact on the population health in developing countries. DM is a chronic, noncommunicable disease, characterized by hyperglycemia, caused by insulin-resistance, inadequate insulin secretion or both. TB is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an airborne bacteria. DM implies a three times greater risk of developing TB and their association can be considered one of the most important challenges regarding TB control. TB can cause a temporary impaired glucose tolerance, which is a risk factor for DM development. The possibility of relapse or death of a patient with TB is significantly higher when the patient also has DM. The DM-TB association represents an important threat to the population health and requires the implementation of adequate programs in order to reduce the prevalence and incidence of the two diseases.
Diana Cristina Protasiewicz, Adina Popa, Maria-Magdalena Roşu, Adela-Gabriela Firănescu, Simona Georgiana Popa and Maria Moța
Humans spend almost one third of their life sleeping, thus sleep deprivation or poor sleep quality will have consequences upon the quality of life. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder that represents a respiratory cessation for at least ten seconds, which appears repeatable during sleep and it is accompanied by decreased oxygen saturation. The diagnosis of OSA is possible by filling in the STOP, STOP BANG, BERLIN questionnaires and performing the polysomnography, an accessible and more accurate method but yet very expensive. The prevalence of OSA is continuously increasing, but because of the nonspecific symptoms, the percentage of un-diagnosed cases is further increased. Data from 11 epidemiological studies published between 1993 and 2014 indicated an OSA prevalence of 22% in men and 17% in women. It has been suggested that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between OSA and obesity, and numerous studies have shown association of OSA with insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications and atrial fibrillation.
Maria-Magdalena Sandu, Diana Cristina Protasiewicz, Adela Gabriela Firănescu, Elena Cristina Lăcătuşu, Mihaela Larisa Bîcu and Maria Moţa
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) represents one of the highest challenges in our century, due to the fact that in the last 20 years the number of patients with DM has doubled, at present affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, both in developed countries and in developing ones, as well. One of the most serious consequences of this increase is the onset of type 2 DM in children, adolescents and young people, the main causes being an unhealthy lifestyle: unhealthy food, lack of physical exercise, which, most of the times, lead to obesity. Also, DM is often associated to micro and macrovascular complications, thus determining disabilities and high costs in the healthcare systems, respectively. DM is one of the main causes of death all over the world, a reason for which there are required prevention programs worldwide.
Adela-Gabriela Firănescu, Adina Popa, Maria-Magdalena Roşu, Diana Cristina Protasiewicz, Simona Georgiana Popa, Mihai Ioana and Maria Moța
Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbi-mortality, about 30% of the population having a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a threefold increased risk of developing the disease. The prevalence of DM is rapidly increasing, especially in countries with low and middle income, where TB incidence is also increased, thus baffling the efforts for TB control. The DM-TB co-epidemic is more frequent in married, older men, with reduced level of education, low income, without a steady job, with lifestyle habits such as alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentarism, living in an urban environment, in crowded areas, in insanitary conditions. These patients have a higher body mass index (BMI) compared with those without DM and frequently present family history of TB, family history of DM, longer duration of DM and reduced glycemic control. TB associated with DM is usually asymptomatic, more contagious, multidrug resistant and is significantly associated with an increased risk of therapy failure, relapse and even death. Thus, the DM-TB comorbidity represents a threat to public health and requires the implementation of urgent measures in order to both prevent and manage the two diseases.
Adina Mitrea, Maria Mota, Daniela Patru, Amorin Remus Popa, Diana Protasiewicz, Robert Dinu, Cristina Muntean, Raluca Dina, Magda Sandu, Flavia Dinu and Betty Bornagel
As the latest data from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) have shown,diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence and incidence are continually increasing. Ourpurposes were to identify the socio-demographical characteristics of the subjectsdiagnosed with DM prior to this study, to establish the percent they represent of thestudied group, to evaluate the metabolic control of the subjects enrolled in the study,as well as to ascertain whether the blood glucose level or the glycated haemoglobin(HbA1c) measurement leads to the detection of a higher percentage of DM newlydiagnosed cases. The study conducted in 3 Romanian cities enrolled 4133 subjects(1340 from Craiova, 1224 from Oradea and 1569 from Sibiu). 1413 subjects (34%)reported having been diagnosed with DM prior to our study. Most of the subjectspreviously diagnosed with DM, 65%, take oral antidiabetic agents (OAA), 13% takeinsulin and 4% take both OAA and insulin. 20% of the subjects who did not reportDM had a blood glucose level ≥126mg/dL and 17% of them had an HbA1c ≥6.5%,leading to a high number of newly diagnosed DM cases, therefore emphasising theimportance of the simultaneous determination of these two parameters. The results ofthis study confirm the increasing prevalence of DM and the necessity of futurestudies in order to asses DM accurate prevalence in Romania.