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  • Author: Diana Cristina Protasiewicz x
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Molecular mechanisms involved in physical exercise and factors that may influence them. particularities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Abstract

Phisical activity, regularly performed, give us a lot of health benefit, especially in preventing cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity. Physical exercise, defined as a controlled, progressive, supervised, requires muscular activity, involving energy consumption through metabolic and thermoregulatory processes. It can be classified as aerobic and anaerobic, according to the metabolic processes that take place. The metabolic equivalent (MET) represents the body’s energy consumption during rest and it is used for quantifying fhisical activity (for example, a MET value of 3 would require 3 times the energy that is consumed at rest). Muscle contraction has two different phases: the isometric one (usually during the first part of the contraction) and the isotonic one. This article presents the interrelation of phisical activity with with the complexity of metabolic patwais, bringing the arguments for the necessity of performing regular and controlled phisical activity.

Open access
The Global Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus and Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Tuberculosis (TB) are two chronic diseases which have a major impact on the population health in developing countries. DM is a chronic, noncommunicable disease, characterized by hyperglycemia, caused by insulin-resistance, inadequate insulin secretion or both. TB is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an airborne bacteria. DM implies a three times greater risk of developing TB and their association can be considered one of the most important challenges regarding TB control. TB can cause a temporary impaired glucose tolerance, which is a risk factor for DM development. The possibility of relapse or death of a patient with TB is significantly higher when the patient also has DM. The DM-TB association represents an important threat to the population health and requires the implementation of adequate programs in order to reduce the prevalence and incidence of the two diseases.

Open access
New Insight into the Role of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Cardiometabolic Diseases

Abstract

Humans spend almost one third of their life sleeping, thus sleep deprivation or poor sleep quality will have consequences upon the quality of life. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder that represents a respiratory cessation for at least ten seconds, which appears repeatable during sleep and it is accompanied by decreased oxygen saturation. The diagnosis of OSA is possible by filling in the STOP, STOP BANG, BERLIN questionnaires and performing the polysomnography, an accessible and more accurate method but yet very expensive. The prevalence of OSA is continuously increasing, but because of the nonspecific symptoms, the percentage of un-diagnosed cases is further increased. Data from 11 epidemiological studies published between 1993 and 2014 indicated an OSA prevalence of 22% in men and 17% in women. It has been suggested that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between OSA and obesity, and numerous studies have shown association of OSA with insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications and atrial fibrillation.

Open access
Data Regarding the Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) represents one of the highest challenges in our century, due to the fact that in the last 20 years the number of patients with DM has doubled, at present affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, both in developed countries and in developing ones, as well. One of the most serious consequences of this increase is the onset of type 2 DM in children, adolescents and young people, the main causes being an unhealthy lifestyle: unhealthy food, lack of physical exercise, which, most of the times, lead to obesity. Also, DM is often associated to micro and macrovascular complications, thus determining disabilities and high costs in the healthcare systems, respectively. DM is one of the main causes of death all over the world, a reason for which there are required prevention programs worldwide.

Open access
The Diabetes-Tuberculosis Co-Epidemic: The Interaction between Individual and Socio-Economic Risk Factors

Abstract

Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbi-mortality, about 30% of the population having a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a threefold increased risk of developing the disease. The prevalence of DM is rapidly increasing, especially in countries with low and middle income, where TB incidence is also increased, thus baffling the efforts for TB control. The DM-TB co-epidemic is more frequent in married, older men, with reduced level of education, low income, without a steady job, with lifestyle habits such as alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentarism, living in an urban environment, in crowded areas, in insanitary conditions. These patients have a higher body mass index (BMI) compared with those without DM and frequently present family history of TB, family history of DM, longer duration of DM and reduced glycemic control. TB associated with DM is usually asymptomatic, more contagious, multidrug resistant and is significantly associated with an increased risk of therapy failure, relapse and even death. Thus, the DM-TB comorbidity represents a threat to public health and requires the implementation of urgent measures in order to both prevent and manage the two diseases.

Open access
Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin evaluation: a populational study

Abstract

As the latest data from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) have shown, diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence and incidence are continually increasing. Our purposes were to identify the socio-demographical characteristics of the subjects diagnosed with DM prior to this study, to establish the percent they represent of the studied group, to evaluate the metabolic control of the subjects enrolled in the study, as well as to ascertain whether the blood glucose level or the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement leads to the detection of a higher percentage of DM newly diagnosed cases. The study conducted in 3 Romanian cities enrolled 4133 subjects (1340 from Craiova, 1224 from Oradea and 1569 from Sibiu). 1413 subjects (34%) reported having been diagnosed with DM prior to our study. Most of the subjects previously diagnosed with DM, 65%, take oral antidiabetic agents (OAA), 13% take insulin and 4% take both OAA and insulin. 20% of the subjects who did not report DM had a blood glucose level ≥126mg/dL and 17% of them had an HbA1c ≥6.5%, leading to a high number of newly diagnosed DM cases, therefore emphasising the importance of the simultaneous determination of these two parameters. The results of this study confirm the increasing prevalence of DM and the necessity of future studies in order to asses DM accurate prevalence in Romania.

Open access