Viral Myocarditis-Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge for Physicians
Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the heart muscle according to clinical, immunohistological and pathological criteria. Myocarditis can manifest a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild dyspnea or chest pain, and sometimes without a specific therapy it can lead to cardiogenic shock and death, too. According to the evidence, the incidence of myocarditis is 8-10 cases per 100.000 humans, and the prevalence of non-selected autopsies is 1-5 per 100 cases. The most common possible triggers for myocarditis are: coxsackie virus B3, parvovirus B19, adenovirus, and human herpesvirus 6. Viral myocarditis appears in three stages: acute viral infection, inflammatory cell infiltration, and myocardial remodeling. The initial patient evaluation includes a detailed history and a careful physical examination which should include an electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, blood studies, non-invasive imaging techniques. The diagnosis of myocarditis can only be obtained by investigations of endomyocardial biopsy, including: histology, immunohistology and molecular biology or virology. Therapy can be divided into supportive and specific therapy (immunosuppressive therapy, interferon, immunoglobulin, immune-adsorptive therapy, immune-modulation, vaccination).
Dejan Petrović, Marina Deljanin Ilić, Bojan Ilić, Sanja Stojanović, Milovan Stojanović and Dejan Simonović
Asystole is a rare primary manifestation in the development of sudden cardiac death (SCD), and survival during cardiac arrest as the consequence of asystole is extremely low. The aim of our paper is to illustrate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and rare and severe form of cardiac arrest - asystole. A very short time between cardiac arrest in acute myocardial infarction, which was manifested by asystole, and the adequate CPR measures that have been taken are of great importance for the survival of our patient.
After successful reanimation, the diagnosis of anterior wall AMI with ST segment elevation was established. The right therapeutic strategy is certainly the early primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). In less than two hours, after recording the “flatline” and successful reanimation, the patient was in the catheterization laboratory, where a successful PPCI of LAD was performed, after emergency coronary angiography. In the further treatment course of the patient, the majority of risk factors were corrected, except for smoking, which may be the reason for newly discovered lung tumor disease. Early recognition and properly applied treatment of CPR can produce higher rates of survival.