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  • Author: Dejan Petrovic x
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Case Report of the Patient with Acute Myocardial Infarction: “From Flatline to Stent Implantation”

Summary

Asystole is a rare primary manifestation in the development of sudden cardiac death (SCD), and survival during cardiac arrest as the consequence of asystole is extremely low. The aim of our paper is to illustrate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and rare and severe form of cardiac arrest - asystole. A very short time between cardiac arrest in acute myocardial infarction, which was manifested by asystole, and the adequate CPR measures that have been taken are of great importance for the survival of our patient.

After successful reanimation, the diagnosis of anterior wall AMI with ST segment elevation was established. The right therapeutic strategy is certainly the early primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). In less than two hours, after recording the “flatline” and successful reanimation, the patient was in the catheterization laboratory, where a successful PPCI of LAD was performed, after emergency coronary angiography. In the further treatment course of the patient, the majority of risk factors were corrected, except for smoking, which may be the reason for newly discovered lung tumor disease. Early recognition and properly applied treatment of CPR can produce higher rates of survival.

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Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha as Differential Diagnostic Marker for Patients with Fever of Unknown Origin

Abstract

Febrile conditions of unidentified origin are still unknown in modern medicine despite the development of diagnostic procedures. There are various agents of long-term temperature encompassing numerous infectious or non-infectious diseases.

The aim of this study was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the values of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNFα, IL-6) in patients who meet the criteria for febrile conditions of unidentified origin, between the group of infectious, malignant, rheumatic, “other” diseases and undiagnosed patients.

The study was conducted in the Immunology laboratory of the Center for Molecular Medicine and Stem Cells Research of the Faculty of Medical Sciences in Kragujevac. Blood samples were taken from patients tested at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases, of the Clinical Center of Kragujevac, in the period from 2014 to 2016. The study included 70 patients.

The measured values of the level of TNFα showed significantly higher values in a group of malignant diseases than in the group of infectious diseases, while the values of IL-1 and IL-6 did not show statistical significance.

TNFα can improve diagnosing in case of patients with an unknown febrile condition, which can shorten the length of the hospital stay and reduce the volume of performance of diagnostic procedures.

Open access
Aquatic Plant Trapa natans L. as Bioindicator of Trace Metal Contamination in a Freshwater Lake (Skadar Lake, Montenegro)

Abstract

Skadar Lake is the largest shallow lake in southeastern Europe. It is located within a national park, and is included in the Ramsar List of international important wetlands, so its preservation and protection from pollution is very important. The aim of this study was to investigate bioaccumulation of the ecotoxic metals Cd, Pb and Cr from sediments of Skadar Lake in the aquatic macrophyte Trapa natans L. Samples of sediment and plants were collected at nine locations covering all major water inputs to the lake as well as locations where contamination could be expected. The obtained results indicate that sediments from the Skadar Lake are only locally contaminated with Cd (0.03–1.18 mg kg−1), generally contaminated with Cr (15.8–180 mg kg−1), the concentrations of both elements frequently exceeding sediment quality guidelines, while concentrations of Pb were low (2.7–17.4 mg kg−1). The highest bioaccumulation of all metals from sediment to Trapa natans L. was observed in the root, with accumulation efficiency decreasing in the order Cd > Cr > Pb. Translocation from root to stem was also higher for Cd than for Cr and Pb, while the translocation from stem to leaf was comparable for all three metals. From the three investigated metals Cd showed the highest mobility. The results indicate that Trapa natans L. may be a very promising bioindicator of trace metal contamination in Skadar Lake.

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Gastrointestinal Non-Infectious Complications in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

Abstract

Gastrointestinal complications are common among patients on peritoneal dialysis. Risk factors for the development of gastrointestinal complications in this patient population include: toxic effects of uremic toxins, frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Helicobacter pylori infection, angiodysplasia, increased intra-abdominal pressure, use of bioincompatible solution for peritoneal dialysis, increased glucose in solutions for peritoneal dialysis, secondary hyperparathyroidism (hypercalcemia), a disorder of lipid metabolism (hypertriglyceridemia), and the duration of peritoneal dialysis treatment. The most important non-infectious gastrointestinal complications in patients on peritoneal dialysis are: gastrointestinal bleeding, herniation and leaking of the dialysate from the abdomen (increased intra-abdominal pressure), impaired lung function (intra-abdominal hypertension), acute pancreatitis, and encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum. Intra-abdominal hypertension is defined as IAP ≥ 12 mmHg. Pouring the peritoneal dialysis solution leads to increased intra-abdominal pressure, which results in the development of hernias, pleuro-peritoneal dialysate leakage (hydrothorax), and restrictive pulmonary dysfunction. Risk factors for the development of acute pancreatitis in this patient population include: uraemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia, hypertriglyceridemia, features of the peritoneal dialysis solution (osmolarity, acidity, glucose, chemical irritation, and calcium in the solution for peritoneal dialysis lead to “local hypercalcemia”), toxic substances from the dialysate, the bags and tubing, and peritonitis and treatment of peritonitis with antibiotics and anticoagulants. Encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum is rare and is the most serious complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis. It is characterized by thickening of the peritoneum, including cancer, and signs and symptoms of obstructive ileus. Diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory and radiological parameters. Encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum can be indicated by an AR-CA-125 concentration of less than 33 U/min and a concentration of AR-IL-6 greater than 350 pg/min in the effluent of patients with ultrafiltration weakness. Treatment consists of stopping peritoneal dialysis, using anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids) and anticicatricial drugs (tamoxifen), while surgical treatment includes enterolysis and adhesiolysis.

Open access
Acute Myocardial Infarction with an Initially Non–Diagnostic Electrocardiogram – Clinical Intuition is Crucial for Decision Making

Summary

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common cause of reduced cardiac capacity and functional status of a patient. Successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in acute coronary syndrome and appropriate, complex cardiovascular rehabilitation play a major role in preserving left ventricular function and improvement of prognosis and quality of patient’s life. The aim of this paper was to present a clinical course in a patient with acute myocardial infarction who did not have a classic ECG presentation in the form of ST-segment elevation. We showed that in everyday clinical work it is essential to timely recognize the symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, make the proper diagnosis and perform right treatment strategy. The next step is cardiovascular rehabilitation program, which positive effects, in our patient, was achieved through the retrieval of functional capacity and correction of risk factors.

Open access
Basic Principles of Antibiotics Dosing in Patients with Sepsis and Acute Kidney Damage Treated with Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration

Abstract

Sepsis is the leading cause of acute kidney damage in patients in intensive care units. Pathophysiological mechanisms of the development of acute kidney damage in patients with sepsis may be hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic. Patients with severe sepsis, septic shock and acute kidney damage are treated with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Sepsis, acute kidney damage, and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics. The impact dose of antibiotics is increased due to the increased volume of distribution (increased administration of crystalloids, hypoalbuminemia, increased capillary permeability syndrome toproteins). The dose of antibiotic maintenance depends on renal, non-renal and extracorporeal clearance. In the early stage of sepsis, there is an increased renal clearance of antibiotics, caused by glomerular hyperfiltration, while in the late stage of sepsis, as the consequence of the development of acute renal damage, renal clearance of antibiotics is reduced. The extracorporeal clearance of antibiotics depends on the hydrosolubility and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the antibiotic, but also on the type of continuous dialysis modality, dialysis dose, membrane type, blood flow rate, dialysis flow rate, net filtration rate, and effluent flow rate. Early detection of sepsis and acute kidney damage, early target therapy, early administration of antibiotics at an appropriate dose, and early extracorporeal therapy for kidney replacement and removal of the inflammatory mediators can improve the outcome of patients with sepsis in intensive care units.

Open access
Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: Clinical and Epidemiological Analysis

Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: Clinical and Epidemiological Analysis

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The annual cardiovascular mortality rate in these patients is 9%, with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, ischemic heart disease and heart failure being the most prevalent causes of death. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular mortality rate and estimate the influence of risk factors on cardiovascular mortality in HD patients. A total of 115 patients undergoing HD for at least 6 months were investigated. Initially a cross-sectional study was performed, followed by a two-year follow-up study. Beside the standard biochemical parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, cardiac troponins (cTn) and the echocardiographic parameters of LV morphology and function (LV mass index, LV fractional shortening, LV ejection fraction) were determined. Results were analyzed using Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier and Log-Rank tests. The average one-year cardiovascular mortality rate was 8.51%. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified increased CRP, cTn T and I, and LV mass index as independent risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Patients with cTnT > 0.10 ng/mL and CRP > 10 mg/L had significantly higher cardiovascular mortality risk (p < 0.01) than patients with cTnT > 0.10 ng/mL and CRP ≤ 10 mg/L and those with cTnT ≤ 0.10 ng/mL and CRP ≤ 10 mg/L (p < 0.01). HD patients with high cTnT and CRP have a higher cardiovascular mortality risk.

Open access
Aortic Dissection - The Role of Echocardiography in Emergency Unit: Case Report

Summary

Aortic dissection is a quite rare but serious condition, often associated with a very high mortality rate; it is manifested by sudden chest pain and acute hemodynamic compromise. In the presented review, a case of an ascending aortic dissection with the lethal outcome is been shown. A healthy man with no past history of illness suddenly felt acute excruciating chest pain which was radiating to the back. A quick diagnosis, ideally within one hour of manifestation, heart auscultation and echocardiography are the key to aortic dissection recovery.

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Acute Kidney Damage in Pregnancy: Etiopathogenesis, Diagnostics and Basic Principles of Treatment

Abstract

Acute kidney damage associated with pregnancy occurs in 1/20.000 pregnancies. In developing countries, the main cause of the development of acute kidney damage is septic abortion, and preeclampsia in the developed countries of the world. Preeclampsia is defined as newly developed hypertension, proteinuria and swelling in pregnant women after the 20th week of gestation. It occurs due to disorders in the development of placenta and systemic disorders of the function of the endothelium of the mother. It is treated with methyldopa, magnesium sulfate and timely delivery. Urgent delivery is indicated if the age of gestation is ≥ 34 weeks. HELLP syndrome is a difficult form of preeclampsia. Its main characteristics are decreased platelet count, microangiopathic hemolysis anemia, increased concentration of aminotransferase in the serum and acute kidney damage. Severe HELLP syndrome is treated with emergency delivery, antihypertensives, magnesium sulfate, and in some cases plasmapheresis and hemo-dialysis. Acute fatty liver in pregnancy occurs because of decreased activity of the LCHAD enzyme of the fetus. Due to the reduced beta oxidation of fatty acids in the hepatocytes of the fetus, long chain fatty acids that cause damage to the mother's hepatocytes are released. Swansea criteria are used for diagnosis, and the difficult form of the disease is treated with plasmapheresis and extracorporeal liver support. Atypical HUS is due to a reduced protein activity that regulates the activity of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Its main features are thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute kidney damage. It is treated with plasmapheresis, and in case of resistance with eculizumab. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is due to decreased activity of the ADAMTS13 enzyme. It is characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, high temperature, nervous system disorders and acute kidney damage. It is treated with plasmapheresis, and severe form of disease with corticosteroids and azathioprine. Early detection and timely treatment of acute kidney damage provides a good outcome for the mother and fetus.

Open access
Analysis of Risk Factors for Development of Cognitive Disorders in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients - Pilot Study

Abstract

Prevalence of cognitive disorders is high in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is used for detecting and evaluation of cognitive disorder degree in this patient population. In examined patient population, only 5 (12.5%) of them had normal cognitive function (MoCA ≥26). Mild cognitive impairment (MoCA 18-26) was found in 65.9% (29) patients, while moderate cognitive disorder (MoCA 10-17) was detected in 6 (21.6%) patients. Major cognitive disorder wasn’t detected in examined population. Statistically signifi cant correlation was not established between laboratory parameters and overall MoCA score. Statistically signifi cant correlation, however, was established between MoCA item that evaluates space and time orientation and intermediate secondary hyperparathyroidism and space and time orientation and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis and silent ischemia of the brain are increasing risk of appearance of cognitive disorders in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

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