Performance of Dual-Hop Relaying Over Shadowed Ricean Fading Channels
In this paper, an analytical approach for evaluating performance of dual-hop cooperative link over shadowed Ricean fading channels is presented. New lower bound expressions for the probability density function (PDF), cumulative distribution function (CDF) and average bit error probability (ABEP) for system with channel state information (CSI) relay are derived. Some numerical results are presented to show behavior of performance gain for the proposed system. Analytical exact and lower bound expression for the outage probability (OP) of CSI assisted relay are obtained and required numerical results are compared.
Brucella thyroiditis represents an extremely rare focal form of brucellosis. In this case report we describe a 55 years old male, diagnosed with brucellosis and peripheral arthritis with subsequent development of acute thyroiditis. The symptoms duration consistent with brucellosis started two weeks before establishing the diagnosis. Only a day after diagnosis and initiation of antibrucellar treatment, acute non-suppurative thyroiditis suddenly manifested. Thyroiditis was diagnosed with clinical inspection and confirmed by ultrasound investigation. With the appropriate antibrucellar treatment, complete cure of thyroid affection was reached in ten days and the patient remained well during the follow-up period of two and a half years. In conclusion, in brucellosis endemic regions brucellosis should be included in the diagnostic consideration in patients with acute non-suppurative thyroiditis. Early recognition and adequate treatment of brucella thyroiditis results in favorable outcome.
The presence of porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus was examined in forty clinical samples of spleen, lymph nodes and lungs originating from non-vaccinated swine by polymerase chain reaction. All animals were reared in extensive livestock farming systems in different geographical districts of Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Porcine circovirus 2 DNA was detected in four lymph node and two spleen samples (15%), while porcine parvovirus DNA was identified in five lymph node samples (12.5%). The presence of both viruses was detected in three lymph node samples (7.5%). Partial nucleotide sequence of ORF1 gene of 2 porcine circovirus 2 and VP2 gene of 2 porcine parvovirus isolates was determined. The nucleotide sequences of two PCV2 isolates from RS-BIH included in phylogenetic typing are similar and cluster together with the strain Mantova isolated from domestic pigs in Italy, strains DE006-14 and DE222-13 isolated from pigs in Germany as well as with the strain Jvnan isolated from pigs in China. Also, analyzed PCV2 isolates were partially similar to the strain NIV-C SRB isolated from pigs in Serbia. The nucleotide sequences of two PPV isolates that were included in phylogenetic typing showed a high level of similarity with the strain Challenge isolated from pigs in UK, strain Kresse isolated from pigs in USA and strains 77 and LZ isolated from pigs in China.
The presence of pseudorabies virus (PrV), porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) was examined in sixty samples (spleen and lymph nodes) and thirty samples of sacral ganglia collected from non-vaccinated swine by virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using PCR method PrV was detected in three samples, PPV in seven samples and six samples were found positive for PCV2. The phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of three PrV isolates identified in this study showed high similarity and significant clustering within the PrV genotype I strains such as Kaplan and Bartha isolated from pigs in Hungary, strain Becker isolated in USA and strain Kolchis isolated in Greece. The nucleotide sequences of two PPV isolates showed high level of similarity with the strain Challenge isolated from pigs in UK, strain Kresse isolated in USA and strains 77 and LZ isolated in China. The phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of two PCV2 isolates showed high level of similarity and significant clustering within genotype PCV2b strains such as NIVS-3, NIVS-5 and NIVS-6 isolated in Serbia, strain 3959 isolated in Austria, strain PM165 isolated from pigs in Brasil, and strain XT2008 isolated in China. The results of our study present the molecular characterization of PrV, PPV and PCV2 identified in swine in Republic of Montenegro. Besides that, these results confirmed that PCR is a very useful method for rapid detection of these viruses in subclinically infected swine.
The presence of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) was examined in 119 nasal swabs collected from cattle with severe respiratory infection. All samples were conducted for virus isolation on the MDBK cell line. The cytopathic effect was observed after 48h to 72h in cells inoculated with eight samples (8/119; 6.7%). The confirmation of isolated strains of BPIV3 was done by the virus-neutralization test. In addition, all samples of bovine nasal swabs were also examined for the presence of BPIV3 virus using RT-PCR with primers specific for the part of HN gene. The presence of BPIV3 was detected in eight samples (8/119; 6.7%) that were also positive upon virus isolation. The molecular characterization based on nucleotide sequencing of the part of the HN gene showed that all BPIV3 isolates belonged to genotype C of BPIV3. They branched in one distinct cluster with three different branches, but these branches were very similar to each other (98.1% to 99.8%). Serbian BPIV3c isolates were most similar to the Chinese BPIV3c isolates SD0805, SD0809 and SD0835 (from 97.92% to 99.7%), and to South Korean (12Q061), Japanese (HS9) and American (TVMDL16 and TVMDL20) BPIV3c strains (from 97.1% to 98.8%), and distinct from American (TVMDL15and TVMDL17) and Australian (Q5592) BPI3V genotype B strains (only 79.9% to 82.3% similarity), as well as from the genotype A BPIV3 strains from different countries published in GenBank.