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  • Author: Dejan Markovic x
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Lasers have found important role in clinical application, science and scientific research. The aim of this review is to focus on using soft tissue laser in endodontic treatments.

The main goal of endodontic treatment is elimination of pathogenic microorganisms from root canal system. Laser light has the ability to reach parts of the tissue and areas where classical techniques and instruments cannot. New approaches to disinfecting root canals have been proposed recently, which include the use of high-power diode lasers, as well as disinfection of the root canal by using photodynamic therapy. A research is necessary to define a precise protocol for high-power laser and photodynamic therapy in treatment of the root canal system.


Background/Aim: Understanding the composition of bacteria in infected root canals is important for ameliorating the treatment strategies that lead to the elimination of pathogens and infection control, but also prevent reinfection. Aim of this study was to investigate microbial composition of primary infected root canals with apical periodontitis of young permanent teeth, originating form school children in Serbia, and its association with clinical symptoms.

Material and Methods: To determine the bacterial composition of infected root canals in children, 35 endodontic samples were obtained. The identification of cultured bacteria was performed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The presence or absence of clinical symtoms were recorded.

Results: Facultative anaerobes were 2,2 times more frequent than obligate anaerobes. The most common facultative anaerobes belonged to following genera, Streptococcus (58 isolates), Actinomyces (10) and Enterococcus (8), while predominant obligate anaerobes, belonged to genera Veillonella (15), Prevotella (9) and Fusobacterium (8). The most common clinical isolates recovered from infected root canals with symptomatic apical periodontitis were Veillonella parvula (10) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (7), while from the asymptomatic ones, they were Streptococcus mitis/Streptococcus oralis (5). Prevalence of Parvimonas micra, Prevotella buccae and Streptococcus constellatus within the root canals might be associated to clinical symptoms.

Conclusions: Species of genera Streptococcus and Veillonella were the most common isolates from primary infected root canals with apical periodontitis in Serbian school children. Facultative anaerobes were predominant over obligate anaerobes. The prevalence of obligate anaerobes was much higher in symptomatic compared to asymptomatic root canal infections. No specific bacterial strain might be associated to a single examined clinical symptom (pain, tenderness to percussion or swelling), but majority of the strains are associated to all of the examined three symptoms.


Chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial essential oils’ samples from the aerial plant parts of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis were investigated. Analyses by GC-FID and GC-MS confirmed 52 oil components. The major constituent of the H. officinalis oil was cis-pinocamphone (34.4%), followed by transpinocamphone (23.3%), and β-pinene (11.3%). Analysis of R. officinalis oil revealed 1.8-cineol as a major constituent (43.8%), as well as transpinocamphone (12.5%), α-pinene (11.5%) and β-pinene (8.2%). The most dominant constituent of S. officinalis oil was cis-thujone (32.7%), in addition to camphor (17.2%), 1.8-cineol (10.1%), α-pinene (8.6%), transthujone (7.7%) and camphene (7.3%). The essential oil antimicrobial activity assay was performed by the use of microdilution method against oral Candida spp. and bacteria, the major causative agents of a number of human oral disorders; all of them were susceptible to tested concentrations of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis essential oils, although the oil of S. officinalis exhibited the lowest antimicrobial potential. The results obtained in this study encourage use of investigated essential oils from Lamiaceae family in development of safe natural agents for prevention and/ or alternative therapy of human oral diseases. However, a special care during development of an effective natural preparation is required.


Background/Aim: Toothbrushes are one of the main means of cleaning teeth and maintaining oral hygiene, but toothbrushes are also potential reservoir of microorganisms, including pathogens. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the oral health, oral hygiene awareness and assess the degree of contamination of toothbrushes among students attending Secondary Medical School.

Material and Methods: Sixty students (32 boys, 28 girls; mean age ≅ 15,7±2,1) attending highschool were randomly selected for this study. Each student included in the study filled out a questionnaire regarding his/her life habits and oral hygiene. Clinical examinations were initiated in order to determine the DMFT, as well as the CIP, CIT, CIA and CPITN indexes, based of which the assessment of oral health status was performed. One stack of fiber was collected from each toothbrush used by the participantes in the study, and than prepared for further microbiological sampling.

Results: Only 11% of the students had the awareness of potential sources of toothbrushes contamination. The average value of DMFT was 3,2 (%D = 22,5; %M = 4,96; %F = 72,5). A statistically significant difference in comparison of the CPITN index and subjects’ response to the professional plague removal in the last 12 months was identified (χ2 = 13,55; p= 0,033). Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Micrococcus species and Streptococcus salivarius were most commonly present microorganisms. In most cases, G-positive bacilli or cocci were isolated, while the presence of Candidae albicans was identified in four samples.

Conclusions: Raising the awareness of dental hygiene through the oral health education may improve better plaque control and subsequently the oral health. Handson training how to maintain the oral hygiene are not expensive and more over they are easy to be organized can be useful in oral heath promotion.


History of dentistry in the Central Serbian District of Jagodina has been influenced by traditional medicine for centuries. Development of dentistry in the region of Jagodina was slow, the level of oral and general hygiene was low and the sanitary prevention was absent. Trained physicians started to practice medicine and dentistry in the first half of the nineteenth century and they were educated in abroad universities. However, common people used to address to these physicians only when the traditional medicine were unable to help. Until the end of the World War II, common, mostly rural people, with the urgent dental treatment need were usually referred to the barbers, healers or empirics in the nearby villages rather than the dentists. Medications used for the urgent dental treatment were balsams and solutions made of herbs. After the World War II, the dental technicians who finished special courses started to practice dentistry. In 1947 the Regional Dental Office in Jagodina was opened and in 1955 the first Doctor of Dental Medicine who graduated from the School of Dental Medicine of University of Belgrade was employed. Nowadays, the Department of Dentistry represents is an important and independent part of the Health Care Centre in Jagodina.


Background/Aim: Lately, fully innovative sol-gel method with high-temperature self-propagating reaction was used for the synthesis of new nanostructured endodontic materials, in combination with different radiopacifiers: bismuth (ALBO-MPCA1) and barium (ALBO-MPCA2). The aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of nanostructured endodontic materials based on highly active calcium silicates and mixed with different radiopacifiers in comparison to MTA+ using human stem cells from the apical papilla- SCAP cells. Material and Methods: Morphology of the samples was studied by SEM. The tested materials were mixed with distilled water in a ratio 2:1 (m/m). Fifteen minutes fter the preparation, samples were used in the experiment. The biocompatibility of fresh materials, after 3h and 7 days, was tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide- MTT test. Results: Samples mostly consisted of spherical and rode-like. The relative viability of cells increased following the exposure time. Conclusion: The biocompatibility of synthesized materials is comparable to the control material MTA+, and therefore these materials can be recommended for for further clinical stuadies.


Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1 (CRS-1) is defined as an acute worsening of heart function leading to acute kidney injury and/or dysfunction. It is an important cause of hospitalization which affects the diagnosis as well as the prognosis and treatment of patients. The purpose of this paper is to analyze causes that lead to the development of cardiorenal syndrome type 1 and its clinical consequences, as well as to emphasize the clinical importance of its early detection. The clinical studies and professional papers dealing with etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of cardiorenal syndrome type 1, have been analyzed. The most important role in the occurrence of cardio renal syndrome type 1 is played by hemodynamic mechanisms, activation of neurohumoral systems, inflammation and imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Diagnosis of cardiorenal syndrome type 1 involves biomarkers of acute renal injury among which the most important are: neutrophil gelatinaseassociated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), IL-18 and the values of nitrogen compounds in serum. In addition to a pharmacological therapy, various modalities of extracorporeal ultrafiltration are applied in treatment of CRS-1, particularly if there is resistance to the use of diuretic therapy. As opposed to the experimental models, in clinical practice acute renal injury is often diagnosed late so that the measures taken do not give the expected results and the protective role shown in experimental conditions do not give the same results. For all these reasons, it is necessary to analyze the pathophysiology of renal impairment in cardiorenal syndrome as well as detect early indicators of kidney injury that could have clinical benefit and positive impact on reducing the cost of treatment.


Background/Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of irradiation cycles and resting periods, on thermal effects on the external root surface during root canal irradiation of two diode laser systems (940 nm and 975 nm), at output powers of 1 W and 2 W in continuous mode. In previous studies the rising of temperature above 7°C has been reported as biologically accepted to avoid periodontal damage on the external root surface. Material and Methods: Twenty human inferior incisors were randomly distributed into four groups, the 940 nm, and the 975 nm diode laser irradiation, both with an output power of 1 W and 2 W, in continuous mode. The thermographic camera was used to detect temperature variations on the external root surface. Digital radiography of the samples was made. Results: After three cycles of irradiation, at apical third of the root, mean temperature variation by 940 nm diode laser irradiation was 2.88°C for output power of 1 W, and 6.52°C for output power of 2 W. The 975 nm laser caused a higher temperature increase in the apical region, with temperature variation of 13.56°C by an output power of 1 W, and 30.60°C at 2 W, with a statistical significance of p ≤ 0.0001 between two laser systems compared for the same power. The resting periods of 20 s between cycles were enough to lower temperature under 7°C in the case of 1 W and 2 W for 940 nm diode laser, while for 975 nm laser, after three irradiation cycles overheating occurred at both output power rates. Conclusion: Three cycles irradiation of 940 nm diode laser, with resting periods of 20 seconds, allowed safe usage of 1 W and 2 W in CW for endodontic treatment. For 975 nm at a power rate of 1 W, the last resting period drop the temperature near the safe limit and it came under 7°C in a period less than a minute, while at the power of 2 W the resting periods were not long enough for the safe temperature decrease.


The most frequent chronic respiratory problems in childhood are asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of this paper is to review basic knowledge and recent advances in oral health and associated dental morbidities in children with asthma and CF. This review considered clinical trials and systematic reviews related to oral health in children with CRD. An online base Medline was searched to determine relevant papers, using the combination of the following terms: “asthma”, “cystic fibrosis”, “caries”, “dental erosion”, and “oral health”. Oral health problems in children with chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) may be influenced by natural course of the disease, pharmacotherapy (inhalation therapy with bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic patients, systemic antibiotics and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in CF patients), medication administration technique and nutritional habits. Children with CRD may have higher prevalence of oral diseases. Patients and their parents, but also general paediatricians and pulmonologists, should be aware of importance of good oral health. Dental practitioners should be more informed about risk factors and specificities of oral health in these patients. Preventive measures, early diagnosis and effective treatment strategies in children with CRD can reduce occurrence of oral diseases and improve patient’s quality of life.


Mucocele of the apendix is a rare clinical and pathological entity with a higher incidence in the female population, and non-specific symptomatology that includes more diagnoses including neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes of the apendix dilation and mucin proliferation. With obtained numerous variations in symptomatology, clinical picture, intraoperative presentation, surgical treatment and histopathological findings, the aim of this paper is an inspection into current knowledge of this disease, its histo-pathological characteristics, differential diagnosis and current treatment modalities. We present a patient with a clinical picture of the acute abdomen and numerous comorbidities. Ultrasound diagnostics indicated the presence of thin-walled dilatation of the small intestine, especially in the lower right quadrant, as well as the presence of free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Apendectomy and removal of the mucocele and resection of the gangrenous sigmoid colon according to Hartmann were done. A definitive histo-pathological finding suggests ischemic colitis and retention mucocele of the apendix with normal mucosa. Histopathologically, four types of mucocele apendixes are distinguished, namely the retention mucinous cyst, mucosal hyperplasia, mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Surgical treatment is the method of choice in treating these tumors, either open or laparoscopic. Imperative is the preservation of the integrity of the entire mucocele, due to the possible dissemination of contents of the cyst and the subsequent development of pseudomyxoma peritonei.