Viewed retrospectively since the work of Modigliani and Miller (), the capital structure still remains a matter of study. The capital structure issue then is examined from different perspectives, and thus intertwining firms and macroeconomic determinants. Studies were focused to examine the relationship between leverage ratios and macroeconomic environment. Motivated from what was done earlier, we try to bring in this study evidence as well. Thus, totally 49 Ukrainian firms are selected and data are examined from 2012 to 2016. The paper is aimed at studying the process of leverage adjusting by examining five firm’s characteristics and three macroeconomic determinants. We found that leverage is influenced significantly from both, firm characteristics and macroeconomic determinants. The study provides evidence those firms with higher tax shield, tangibility, net trade credit, and profitability used more leverage than counterparties. Firm’s size and inflation are confirmed as insignificant determinants. On the other hand, GDP growth rate and default spread are confirmed to play a role on leverage policies.
The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of trade credit indicators and the possible determinants of trade credit for firms acting in the construction sector, using a sample of 958 medium and large firms for the period 2004-2013. The objective of the study is to identify and examine selected variables that may determine trade credit used and provided by selected firms. The sample is derived from the Amadeus database. The examined firms were ones that have sold and bought on credit. The data was organised as panel- data and quantitative analyses were performed. This study demonstrates results that firms with higher trade receivables are less profitable; a positive correlation was found between trade receivables and liquidity, whereas a negative correlation was detected between trade receivables and gearing; larger firms provide and obtain more trade credit than medium firms; more profitable firms use less gearing; firms with higher profit margin are more liquid and more liquid firms use less gearing; based on an average and overall terms, there is not such a clear distinction between Western and Eastern European countries from viewpoint of net trade credit and net trade period.