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Open access

Yan Li, Sumiko Tsukamoto, Ke Hu and Manfred Frechen

Abstract

The timing of the formation of extensively distributed sand dunes in the Bohai coastal area and its forcing factors are poorly understood. In this study, the chronology of a well-preserved sand dune located in Panjin Forest Park (PJ) in the Lower Liao Plain (LLP) is investigated using quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and K-feldspar postinfrared (IR) infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) (pIRIR) dating. For the pIRIR measurements, the combination of preheating at 180°C and pIRIR stimulation at 150°C (pIRIR150) is exploited. The quartz results show that the sand dune accumulated from c. 120 a (1890 AD) to c. 70 a (1940 AD) before present, and the underlying sandy soil sediments deposited from c. 5.0 ka to c. 0.13 ka as marsh sediment after the sea level highstand since the mid-Holocene. From the evidence in historical coastline records, the PJ sand dune is an inland sand dune and not a coastal sand dune. Based on further information of climate and temperature change after the Little Ice Age (LIA) and human activity in northeastern China, we conclude that the PJ sand dune accumulation was very likely impacted by the immigrants and land reclamation at the end of Qing dynasty. The fading corrected IR50 ages, the apparent and fading corrected pIRIR150 ages are consistent with quartz ages for two sandy soil samples but overestimate those for six sand samples. The overestimation of the feldspar ages is derived from the residual signal which has not been bleached before burial. The offset obtained from the difference between the quartz OSL and the feldspar pIRIR150 ages are ~20–160 a (predicted residual dose: ~0.08–0.60 Gy), whereas the measured residual dose after bleaching 4 h in a solar simulator yielded age overestimation of ~10–40 a (~0.05–0.16 Gy). The age discrepancy calculated from the predicted residual was larger than those obtained from the laboratory measured residuals. We conclude that the pIRIR150 of aeolian sediment is applicable for samples older than ~1000 years where the effect of the residual dose become negligible.

Open access

Xuansheng Cheng, De Li, Peijiang Li, Xiaoyan Zhang and Guoliang Li

Abstract

Considering concrete nonlinearity, the wave height limit between small and large amplitude sloshing is defined based on the Bernoulli equation. Based on Navier-Stokes equations, the mathematical model of large amplitude sloshing is established for a Concrete Rectangle Liquid-Storage Structure (CRLSS). The results show that the seismic response of a CRLSS increases with the increase of seismic intensity. Under different seismic fortification intensities, the change in trend of wave height, wallboard displacement, and stress are the same, but the amplitudes arc not. The areas of stress concentration appear mainly at the connections between the wallboards, and the connections between the wallboard and the bottom.

Open access

Hui Li, Ya-ling Wang and De-ying Tian

Abstract

Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of intraperitoneal injection of antibiotics, intravenous injection of terlipressin, and combined treatment of coloclysis and plasma exchange on hepatic failure(HF), the subjects included 494 inpatient cases of hepatic failure who were treated in Department of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China from 1997 to 2008.

Methods The patients that met the inclusion criteria were divided into intraperitoneal antibiotic injection group, intravenous terlipressin injection group, coloclysis group, plasma exchange group, combination group of coloclysis and plasma exchange in terms of treatment given and a control group was set up for each of the treatment group. In the intraperitoneal injection group, the prognosis and changes in clinical manifestations were observed in HF patients complicated with spontaneous peritonitis (SBP). In terlipressin injection group,HF patients complicated with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) were observed for prognosis and changes in serum creatinine. In the combination group, the improvement in serum total bilirubin and prothrombin activity were observed.

Results Two weeks after intraperitoneal injection of antibiotics, the ease ratios of abdominal pain, pressure pain and rebound tenderness were 87.64%, 82.02% and 82.02% in the intraperitoneal injection group, respectively and the volume of ascites obviously decreased in 69 patients (77.53%). The survival rate in intraperitoneal injection group was significantly higher than in control group (P = 0.004). Four to eight days after the intravenous injection of terlipressin, the survival rate and the rate of serum creatinine decline of the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.003, P = 0.000). After 4 weeks of treatment, the ratio of clinical symptoms improvement (acratia, anorexia, abdominal distension, constipation) in coloclysis group were 60.27%, 57.53%, 91.78% and 94.52%, in plasma exchange group were 71.83%, 69.44%, 75% and 72.22%, and in combination group were 82.14%, 79.46%, 92.85% and 95.54%. The serum total bilirubin was decreased and the prothrombin activity increased and the differences were statistically significant as compared with control group (P = 0.000).

Conclusions The intraperitoneal injection of antibiotics, intravenous injection of terlipressin and combined treatment of coloclysis and plasma exchange were all effective for the treatment of HF and its complications.

Open access

Jingsong Li, Andreas Reiffs, Uwe Parchatka and Horst Fischer

Abstract

Ambient concentrations of CO, as well as NOx and O3, were measured as a part of the PARADE campaign conducted at the Taunus Observatory on the summit of the Kleiner Feldberg between the 8th of August and 9th of September 2011. These measurements were made in an effort to provide insight into the characteristics of the effects of both biogenic and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric chemistry in the rural south-western German environment. The overall average CO concentration was found to be 100.3±18.1 ppbv (within the range of 71 to 180 ppbv), determined from 10-min averages during the summer season. The background CO concentration was estimated to be ~90 ppbv. CO and NOx showed bimodal diurnal variations with peaks in the late morning (10:00-12:00 UTC) and in the late afternoon (17:00-20:00 UTC). Strong correlations between CO and NOx indicated that vehicular emission was the major contributor to the notable CO plumes observed at the sampling site. Both local meteorology and backward trajectory analyses suggest that CO plumes were associated with anthropogenically polluted air masses transferred by an advection to the site from densely populated city sites. Furthermore, a good linear correlation of R2 = 0.54 between CO and O3 (∆O3/∆CO=0.560±0.016 ppbv/ppbv) was observed, in good agreement with previous observations

Open access

Qi Huang, Xue-Feng Sun, Hong-Li Lin, Zhi-Min Zhang, Li-Rong Hao, Li Yao, Ji-Jun Li, De-Long Zhao, Yong Wang, Han-Yu Zhu and Xiang-Mei Chen

Abstract

Objective: The objective was to increase the understanding of vascular access in hemodialysis and evaluate hemodialysis-related anticoagulation treatments and the associated hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications. Materials and Methods: In this study, an epidemiological investigation was conducted in 1175 patients who underwent hemodialysis in seven blood purification centers in northern Chinese. The patients were divided into two groups based on the vascular access they used: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) group and central venous catheter (CVC) group. The similarities and differences of anticoagulation and hemorrhagic, thrombotic complications were compared between two groups. Results: Arteriovenous fistula was the most frequently used vascular access, and heparin was the most commonly used anticoagulant. Patients in CVC group experienced significantly greater rates of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administration and had a higher rate in achieving thrombotic complications than those in AVF group. There were no significant differences in LMWH dosages in patients with thrombotic complications, as well as the proportion of patients who received anti-platelet drugs. Heparinized catheter lock solutions were excessively high in this study, which may lead to a risk of hemorrhage. Conclusion: Hemodialysis-related anticoagulation treatments in China require additional improvements, especially for the patients using CVC as vascular access. There is an urgent need to develop clinical evaluation studies of anticoagulation treatments for achieving more standardized and targeted treatments.

Open access

Ting-Ting Liu, Meng-Jie Lei, Yu-Feng Li, Ya-Qian Liu, Li-Na Meng and Chang-De Jin

Abstract

Objective

This meta-analysis aimed to examine the effects of parental involvement in infant care in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).

Methods

PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database, and VIP database were searched till November 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) examining the effect of parental involvement in the NICU were considered for inclusion.

Results

We included 10 studies (three RCTs, seven CCTs) with a total of 1,851 participants. The meta-analysis demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences on nosocomial infection between two groups (risk ratio [RR] = 0.90, 95% CI 0.63–1.30, P = 0.58). Compared with no parental involvement groups, parental involvement groups showed more weight gain (mean difference [MD] = 1.47, 95% CI 0.65–2.29, P < 0.05), higher breast-feeding rate (RR = 1.38, 95% C11.25–1.53, P < 0.05), lower readmission rate (RR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.80, P < 0.05), and higher satisfaction rate (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.16, P< 0.05).

Conclusions

Parental involvement in the NICU interventions could not increase the rate of nosocomial infection of neonates, but could improve their weight gain, breast-feeding and parental satisfaction and decrease their readmission. However, since the conclusion of this meta-analysis was drawn based on the limited number of high-quality RCTs, more high-quality studies should be conducted in the future to confirm its positive intervention effects.

Open access

Xueliang Li, Mengmeng Liu and Ingo Schiermeyer

Abstract

An edge-colored graph G is rainbow connected, if any two vertices are connected by a path whose edges have distinct colors. The rainbow connection number of a connected graph G, denoted rc(G), is the smallest number of colors that are needed in order to make G rainbow connected. In this paper we show that rc(G) ≤ 3 if |E(G)| ≥ + 2, and rc(G) ≤ 4 if |E(G)| ≥ + 3. These bounds are sharp.

Open access

De-xing Jia, Jing Feng, Ping Li, Xiu-ying Lun and Xian-jie Yu

Abstract

Objective Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) naïve chronic hepatitis B(CHB) patients were given rescue combination therapy after drug resistance to lamivudine or adefovir. Evolution of HBV mutation patterns and its impact on antiviral effects were studied.

Methods Total of 142 naïve CHB patients treated with lamivudine were randomly divided into two groups when lamivudine resistance occurred. One group was added with adefovir, the other was switched to entecavir and adefovir. Seventy-two naïve CHB patients treated with adefovir were randomly divided into two groups when adefovir resistance occurred. One group was added with lamivudine, the other was added with entecavir. HBV polymerase reverse transcriptase mutations associated with resistance were analyed before and after 48 weeks of rescue therapy, respectively.

Results The mutation patterns of M204V/I, M204V+L180M were predominantly found in CHB patients after lamivudine resistance. Meanwhile, the entecavir resistance mutation patterns were also detected. Therefore, patients with lamivudine resistance could develop more diverse drug resistance mutations if they were switched to entecavir and adefovir. The mutation patterns of rtA181 were predominantly found in CHB patients after adefovir resistance and rescure therapy with add-on entecavir was more effective than with add-on lamivudine

Conclusions Resistance mutation analysis chould help to choose NAs, reduce resistance and ehance antiviral effects.

Open access

Hui Li, Xiao-Dong Yang, Yong-Rui Yang, Si-Yuan Gao, De-Ying Tian and Quan Yuan

Abstract

Background and Aims Recently, epidemiology studies of hepatitis E in different areas are attracted more attention. Extensive studies of prevalent status and clinical manifestations could help us to broaden our knowledge, so as to excellently prevent and treat hepatitis E. The study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of 394 cases of sporadic acute hepatitis E (AHE) in Southwest of China from 2008 to 2010.

Methods The clinical data of 394 cases with sporadic AHE in Southwest of China from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed.

Results In the 394 cases with sporadic AHE, the ratio of male/female was 1.432 : 1, and the mean age was (31.53 ± 18.12) years. Totally, 94 (23.86%) patients aged under 18, 271 (68.78%) patients aged between 18 and 60, and 29 (7.36%) patients aged above 60. The incidence rate was significantly increased in summer (P = 0.000), especially in May (14.72%) and July (13.71%). In addition, the characteristics of occupation and ethnic group distribution were migrant laborers (106/394, 26.90%) and Han people (365/394, 92.64%). The length of stay, incidence of jaundice, the peak value of total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase in male patients were all higher than those in female patients significantly (P < 0.05). The prolonged length of stay, decreased levels of ALT/ALB/CHE, increased levels of TBil, and increased incidence of jaundice and fatigue were associated with older age significantly (P < 0.05). The differences in peak values of total bilirubin (TBil), total bile acid (TBA), glutamyltransferase (GGT), cholinesterase (CHE) between AHE group and the groups of AHE accompanied respectively by chronic hepatitis B (CHB), acute alcoholic fatty liver (AFL), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were significant (P < 0.05). In addition, no significant difference was found in length of stay and biochemical indexes among anti-HEV-IgG positive group, anti-HEV-IgM positive group and anti- HEV-IgM/IgG both positive group (P > 0.05).

Conclusions Four epidemiological characteristics, including aged between 18 and 60, male, summer and migrant laborers, are found to be associated with acute hepatitis E. The prognosis of AHE in the majority of patients was favorable, but aged above 60 years and coexistence with CHB, AFL and NAFLD could be considerede as the factors inducing the infaust prognosis.