Daya Ram Bhusal, Kishor Chandra Ghimire, Sabina Dulal, Pratikshya Baniya and Sudeep Thakuri
Ecology and conservation status of bumblebee species remains poorly understood, especially in rapidly degrading urban ecosystems, which is important considering the role of bumblebees in the pollinations. We collected more than 200 bumblebee (Bombus spp.) specimens under six species in different parts of the Kathmandu valley (Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur cities) in Nepal. The species of bumblebees were analyzed with their host plant types and the land use change using remote sensing and field observation data. We found that the bumblebees exert strong variation and were significantly affected by the families of the host plants and the nature of flowers (open and closed type) rather than colors and categories (invasive and noninvasive). We underline that the rapid habitat loss by changing land use in the study area can be a potential threat to the conservation of these important pollinators, and thus, need focused habitat conservation efforts.
Tilak Thapamagar, Shivish Bhandari, Kishor Ghimire and Daya Ram Bhusal
The Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is classified as an “Endangered” species by the IUCN Red list category. We studied anthropogenic pressure on the musk deer population in the Khaptad National Park, Nepal. The questionnaire survey was applied from October to November 2018. Out of 111 respondents, 77% reported that the primary objective for poacher kills to the musk deer was musk pod, followed by skin (15%) and meat (8%). The major part of the killing tools represented traps; however, 23% respondents stated that poachers also use snares, 20% respondents reported guns, and 18% persons interviewed had no idea regarding the tool the poachers use to kill the musk deer. There was a significant difference between the male and female respondents regarding their opinion on musk deer conservation; male respondents exhibited more positive attitudes towards musk deer conservation than female respondents (Chi-squared 8.21; P < 0.05). People based conservation awareness programs and alternative income generating sources must be employed for long term musk deer conservation in the Nepal Himalayas.