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  • Author: Dawid Jaremko x
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the basic physical and chemical parameters and the total content of Fe and Ni as well as their proportion in the fractions sequenced with Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure in the selected organic materials used as soil fertilisers: bovine manure and chicken manure from broilers and layers. The highest content of dry matter, organic carbon and total nitrogen was found in the chicken layer manure. All examined materials had a comparable, C:N ratio (10–11:1). The highest amount of iron and nickel was found in the chicken broiler manure, whereas the lowest was in the chicken layer manure. The distribution of tested metals in the fractions sequenced with BCR procedure was differentiated. In the bovine manure and chicken broiler manure, the highest amount of iron was sequenced in the residual fraction, whereas in the chicken layer manure it was in the oxidative fraction. The oxidative fraction constituted the highest proportion in the total nickel content in the bovine manure and chicken layer manure, whereas in the chicken broiler manure it was the reducible fraction.

Abstract

The object of this study was to compare the results obtained with four methods of determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and sum of exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K) in soils. One of these methods is Kappen’s method and the others methods are based on different extracting reagents: sodium acetate (pH = 8.2), barium chloride and hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride. Values measured with barium ions and hexaamminecobalt(III) ions as index cations are very comparable and these two methods can be considered as equivalent. Kappen’s method gives overestimated results, especially for acid soils reach in organic matter and very calcareous soils. Sodium acetate, buffering the pH of the extracting solution, causes increase of numbers of negatively charged sites and particularly those bonded to organic matter and for this reason values obtained with this method are overestimated. Nevertheless, it is possible to correct this error for a given soil sample by regression equation considering pH of soil, clay and organic carbon content.

Streszczenie

Badano wpływ zanieczyszczenia gleby niklem (0, 75, 150 i 225 mg Ni kg-1 gleby) na tle zróżnicowanego wapnowania (0 Ca i Ca w g 1 Hh) i materiałów organicznych (bez stosowania materiałów organicznych, słoma żytnia i węgiel brunatny z Kopalni Węgla Brunatnego Turów) na zawartość niklu w kupkówce pospolitej i frakcje tego metalu w glebie. Analizowano cztery pokosy kupkówki pospolitej zebrane w trzecim roku doświadczenia wazonowego oraz oznaczono frakcje niklu w glebie pobranej po ostatnim pokosie rośliny testowej. Zawartość niklu w roślinie oraz ogólną zawartość tego pierwiastka w glebie oznaczono metodą ICP-AES po wcześniejszej mineralizacji. Frakcje niklu w glebie oznaczono metodą frakcjonowania sekwencyjnego - BCR. Wprowadzenie do gleby niklu, niezależnie od ilości, spowodowało istotne zwiększenie jego zawartości w biomasie kupkówki pospolitej oraz w glebie we wszystkich frakcjach, przede wszystkim we frakcji wymiennej (F1). Wapnowanie gleby oraz aplikacja materiałów organicznych zmniejszyły zawartość niklu w biomasie kupkówki pospolitej oraz w glebie we frakcji wymiennej, bezpośrednio przyswajalnej przez rośliny, powodując jednocześnie zwiększenie jego udziału we frakcji rezydualnej (wapnowanie) oraz redukowalnej i utlenialnej (aplikacja materiałów organicznych).

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the accumulation level of copper, zinc and nickel in forest mushrooms – Bay Bolete (Xerocomus badius), Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus), Rough-Stemmed Bolete (Leccinum scabrum), Slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) and Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera). The analysed mushrooms were obtained from growth forests located in the Masovian Voivodeship in the following counties: Siedlce, Sokołów, Łosice and Łuków. Total content of metals was determined using the method of atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma, after the earlier mineralisation of materials ‘by dry combustion’ in a muffle furnace at the temperature of 450°C, and after melting of ash in a 10% solution of HCl. In the soil samples taken from the places where the tested mushrooms occur, pH in 1 mol KCl·dm-3 and total content of copper, zinc and nickel were determined by the ICP-AES method after earlier mineralization in mixture of concentration HCl and HNO3 (3:1) in a microwave system. Test results were statistically analysed with the use of software STATISTICA 12 PL (STATSOFT, TULSA, USA). The analysed mushrooms had diverse content of the determined metals. The highest total average content of copper and zinc was present in Bay Bolete: 34.83 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Cu and 155.50 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Zn, and the highest average content of nickel was contained in Rough-Stemmed Bolete – 2.98 mg ∙ kg-1d.m.. The lowest average content of copper and zinc was determined in Rough-Stemmed Bolete: 11.98 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Cu and 91.90 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Zn, and lowest total average content of nickel was present in Bay Bolete – 1.05 mg ∙ kg-1d.m.

No excessive accumulation of examined heavy metals was stated in the analysed mushrooms species.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the response of biomass yield and the content of K, Na, Ca and Mg in the eastern galega and soil under the influence of nitrogen in the form of (15NH4)2SO4. Three-year field experiment (2005–2007) was carried out on experimental plots belonging to the University of Natural Sciences - Humanities in Siedlce (52°17’N, 22°28’E). Nitrogen 15N was applied as ammonium sulphate at a dose of early spring 1.66 g N.m−2. In each year of the study were collected three cuts of eastern galega budding phase. Shown yield of dry weight of the test plant. The content of K, Na, Ca and Mg in the eastern galega and soil were determined by ICP-AES emission spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma. Subsequently, the uptake and marked weight ratios of macronutrients.

Under the influence of nitrogen in the form of ammonium sulphate, dry matter yield of eastern galega (average of 3 years of research and 3 swaths) increased by 29.7%. Fertilisation with nitrogen contributed to the reduction of K content, increasing the content of Na, Ca, Mg, in a test plant and to increase the pick, all the elements analysed with the yield of biomass. Nitrogen fertilisation resulted in a reduction in the quantitative ratios K: (Ca + Mg), (K + Na) : (Ca + Mg), K: Ca, K : Mg and the total content of the analysed elements in the soil (average of the years).