The file is synonymous with British bureaucracy but it had a long gestation from at least the 16th century. It emerged slowly from the chrysalis of the docket during the 19th century, differentially in the various departments of state and became a fixity following reforms in the aftermath of the First World War. Even then the system of recording information in government was not uniform and was subject to the exigencies of the financial crisis and the commitment of officials. Although India and the rest of the Empire had separate administration, there was very little attempt to manage and preserve information effectively. Most initiatives met only with partial success and were often resented by junior officials. Registries in keeping with long-held commitment to paucity in government spending were and are poorly staffed and resourced. This article traces the evolution of the file until its demise in the digital age.
Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293). Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05). The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05). The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05). Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption.
Personal Exposure to Fine Particles and Benzo[A]pyrene. Relation with Indoor and Outdoor Concentrations of these Pollutants in Kraków
Objectives: This study assessed personal exposure of pregnant women to fine particles (PM2.5) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the relationship between pollutant concentrations in ambient and indoor air. Materials and Methods: In a group of 78 pregnant women, simultaneous 48 h measurements of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to PM2.5 and B[a]P were carried out in the second trimester of pregnancy. The results show that participants were exposed to varying concentrations of PM2.5 and B[a]P, with higher exposure in the winter season. Overall, the mean personal PM2.5 level was 30.4 μg/m3 and B[a]P 2.1 ng/m3. The winter/summer ratios for mean personal exposures were 1.4 (35.6 μg/m3 vs. 25.8 μg/m3) and 5.4 (4.9 ng/m3 vs. 0.9 ng/m3), respectively. As for indoor levels, the winter/summer ratios were 1.4 (33.2 μg/m3 vs. 24.4 μg/m3) for PM2.5 and 5.4 (4.3 ng/m3 vs. 0.8 ng/m3) for B[a]P, and for outdoor concentrations, the respective values were 1.5 (40.3 μg/m3 vs. 26.4 μg/m3), and 6.8 (6.1 ng/m3 vs. 0.9 ng/m3). A stronger correlation was found between personal PM2.5 exposure and the pollutant concentration indoors (r = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83-0.93) than outdoors (r = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.64-0.83). The correlations between personal B[a]P exposure and its indoor or outdoor levels were similar (0.95-0.96) and significant. The markedly higher exposure to B[a]P in Kraków in winter than in summer can be explained by the massive use of coal for heating in the cold season. Conclusion: We conclude that although ambient PM2.5 measurements provide an adequate indicator of outdoor air quality for use in epidemiologic studies, they may not be adequate for studies on relationship between non-ambient pollution and health effects. Since only about 20% of variability in personal B[a]P exposure could be explained by personal PM2.5 level, the extrapolation of personal exposure to B[a]P from personal PM2.5 data may be greatly underestimated.
We present the case of a patient with sepsis following a traumatic intra-bladder instillation of Calmette-Guerin Bacillus with pneumonia and possibly hepatitis. These complications are rare and could be induced by both immuno-allergic reaction and bacteremia. There is no specific guideline to treat this condition, but many clinicians depicting similar cases seem to agree on prolonged anti-tuberculous antibiotics with associated corticosteroid therapy. Following this therapy, the prognosis is generally favorable depending upon the fact that diagnosis has correctly been made. Our case highlights the fact that correct diagnosis has to be made especially in the presence of sepsis without a clear septic source.
Study aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if high school physical education seniors’ health-related fitness knowledge is related to their aerobic capacity and body composition.
Material and methods: The FitSmart test assessed students (n = 171) health-related fitness knowledge. Aerobic capacity was calculated based on the students PACER score. Body Composition was measured using the Tanita TBF 300A body composition analyzer.
Results: Aerobic fitness was a statistically significant predictor of exam score (β = 0.563, p < 0.001), but percent body fat was not (β = 0.185, p =0.074). Comparing the health-related fitness exam scores by the FITNESSGRAM classification system, students who were classified as Very Lean and High Risk for body composition had lower exam scores than those classified in the healthy fitness zone.
Conclusions: The results confirmed previous findings that students have inadequate health-related fitness knowledge. Furthermore, the study extends these findings by identifying some associations of percent body fat and estimated VO2max to health-related fitness knowledge.
We study population trends of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland with special reference to the development since 2005 and three study areas, South West Switzerland (4,993 km2, 1960–2015), the Northern Jura mountains (3,270 km2, 2005–2015) and the Canton of Zurich (1,748 km2, 2002–2015). We used dynamic occupancy models, which allow the territory-specific extinction and colonization parameters – the demographic rates (at the territory level) underlying a population trend – to be estimated. The Swiss peregrine population has developed in line with trends observed in many other countries and regions in North America and Europe: after the pesticide-induced collapse between the 1950s and 1970s, the population largely recovered up to the turn of the millennium. However, in recent years, we detected significant declines again: in SW Switzerland, the population decreased from 51 to 33 pairs during 2008–2015 (-35%), in the N Jura from 70 to 40 pairs during 2009–2015 (-43%) and in Zurich from 6–7 to 2–4 pairs during 2010–2015 (-50%). In the same time, the local extinction rate in the three study areas (more than) doubled from (0.05) 0.1 to 0.2, while the colonization rate dropped from 0.3 to 0.1 in one of the areas, while no change was detectable in the other two. We discuss two factors responsible for these strong, recent declines of Swiss peregrines: (1) predation by Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) and (2) direct and illegal persecution by humans. In addition to these two factors, growing human disturbance (e.g. through climbers, bird photographers, paragliders, hikers, geocachers, etc.) and fatalities due to collisions with man-made structures (power lines, glass, wind turbines, etc.) are also suspected to contribute to the population decline.
The Australasian region is a centre of biodiversity and endemism, mainly based on the tropical climate in combination with the large amount of islands. During the Pleistocene, islands of the Sahul Shelf (Australia, New Guinea, Aru Islands) had been part of the same land mass, while islands within the Wallacea (Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, Sulawesi etc.) remained isolated. We investigated biogeographical avian diversification patterns of two species complexes across the Wallacea and the Sahul Shelf: the Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus Wagler, 1832, and the Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus Linnaeus, 1771. Both species are represented by a large number of described geographical subspecies. We used mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences for phylogenetic and network analysis to detect biogeographic roles of islands and avian diversification patterns. The number of threatened taxa in this region is increasing rapidly and there is an urgent need for (sub-)species conservation in this region. Our study provides first genetic evidence for treating several island taxa as distinct species. In both species complexes similar genetic patterns were detected. Genetic diversification was higher across the islands of the Wallacea than across the islands of the Sahul Shelf. Divergence in E. roratus can be dated back about 1.38 million years ago, whereas in the younger T. haematodus it was 0.80 million years ago. Long distance dispersal was the most likely event for distribution patterns across the Wallacea and Sahul Shelf. The geographic origin of the species-complex Eclectus roratus spp. is supposed to be Wallacean, but for the species-complex Trichoglossus haematodus spp. it is supposed to be non-Wallacean. Trichoglossus euteles, so far considered a distinct species, clearly belongs to the Trichoglossus-haematodus-complex. The only case of sympatry in the complex is the distribution of T. (h.) euteles and T. h. capistratus on Timor, which means a rapid evolution from one ancestor into two distinct species within only 800,000 years. For all other taxa a Checkerboard distribution pattern is present. In this complex, 8 taxa are already treated as separate species (del Hoyo et al. 2014). Based on genetic evidence, the following populations are supported to represent phylogenetic units: (1) N New Guinea (haematodus) incl. Biak (rosenbergii), Bismarck Archipelago (massena), and New Caledonia (deplanchii); (2) Flores (weberi); (3) E Australia (moluccanus) incl. Aru Islands (nigrogularis) and S New Guinea (caeruleiceps); (4) N Australia (rubritorquis); (5) Timor 1st lineage (capistratus) incl. Sumba (fortis); (6) Bali and Lombok (mitchellii); (7) Sumbawa (forsteni); (8) Timor 2nd lineage (euteles). Those 8 phylogenetic units are not identical to the 8 species listed by del Hoyo et al. (2014). Several populations on smaller islands are under decline, a separate species status may lead to a higher conservation status in both species complexes, which are currently listed as “Least Concern”. Eclectus roratus is currently treated as monospecific. Based on genetic evidence, the following populations are suggested being treated as valid species: (1) Sumba (Eclectus cornelia), (2) Tanimbar Islands (E. riedeli), (3) Moluccas (E. roratus), and (4) New Guinea (E. polychloros incl. Aru Islands (E. aruensis), and Solomon Island (E. solomonensis).
An increasing number of known RNA 3D structures contributes to the recognition of various RNA families and identification of their features. These tasks are based on an analysis of RNA conformations conducted at different levels of detail. On the other hand, the knowledge of native nucleotide conformations is crucial for structure prediction and understanding of RNA folding. However, this knowledge is stored in structural databases in a rather distributed form. Therefore, only automated methods for sampling the space of RNA structures can reveal plausible conformational representatives useful for further analysis. Here, we present a machine learning-based approach to inspect the dataset of RNA three-dimensional structures and to create a library of nucleotide conformers. A median neural gas algorithm is applied to cluster nucleotide structures upon their trigonometric description. The clustering procedure is two-stage: (i) backbone- and (ii) ribose-driven. We show the resulting library that contains RNA nucleotide representatives over the entire data, and we evaluate its quality by computing normal distribution measures and average RMSD between data points as well as the prototype within each cluster.